Campus Universitario Of Rabanales

Charles Darwin, Spain

Campus Universitario Of Rabanales

Charles Darwin, Spain
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Trujillo I.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Ojeda M.A.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Urdiroz N.M.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Potter D.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2014

Olive is one of the most ancient crop plants and the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba (WOGBC), Spain, is one of the world's largest collections of olive germplasm. We used 33 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) markers and 11 morphological characteristics of the endocarp to characterise, identify and authenticate 824 trees, representing 499 accessions from 21 countries of origin, from the WOGBC collection. The SSR markers exhibited high variability and information content. Of 332 cultivars identified in this study based on unique combinations of SSR genotypes and endocarp morphologies, 200 were authenticated by genotypic and morphological markers matches with authentic control samples. We found 130 SSR genotypes that we considered as molecular variants because they showed minimal molecular differences but the same morphological profile than 48 catalogued cultivars. We reported 15 previously described and 37 new cases of synonyms as well as 26 previously described and seven new cases of homonyms. We detected several errors in accession labelling, which may have occurred at any step during establishment of plants in the collection. Nested sets of 5, 10 and 17 SSRs were proposed to progressively and efficiently identify all of the genotypes studied here. The study provides a useful protocol for the characterisation, identification and authentication of any olive germplasm bank that has facilitated the establishment of a repository of true-to-type cultivars at the WOGBC. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gomez Alvarez E.,CNRS Chemistry Laboratory | Gligorovski S.,CNRS Chemistry Laboratory | Wortham H.,CNRS Chemistry Laboratory | Cases M.V.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales
Talanta | Year: 2012

A characterisation of a system designed for active sampling of gaseous compounds with Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fibres is described. This form of sampling is useful to automate sampling while considerably reducing the sampling times. However, the efficiency of this form of sampling is also prone to be affected by certain undesirable effects such as fibre saturation, competition or displacement effects between analytes, to which particular attention should be paid especially at high flow rates. Yet, the effect of different parameters on the quantitivity of the results has not been evaluated. For this reason, in this study a careful characterisation of the influence of the parameters involved in active sampling SPME has been performed. A versatile experimental set-up has been designed to test the influence of air velocities and fluid regime on the quantitivity and reproducibility of the results. The mathematical model applied to the calculation of physical parameters at the sampling points takes into consideration the inherent characteristics of gases, distinctive from liquids and makes use of easily determined experimental variables as initial/boundary conditions to get the model started. The studies were carried out in the high-volume outdoor environmental chambers, EUPHORE. The sample subjected to study was a mixture of three aldehydes: pentanal, hexanal and heptanal and the determination methodology was O-(2,3,4,5,6- pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) on-fibre derivatisation. The present work proves that the determination procedure is quantitative and sensitive, independent from experimental conditions: temperature, relative humidity or ozone levels. With our methodology, the influence on adsorption of three inter-related variables, i.e., air velocity, flow rate and Reynolds numbers can be separated, since a change can be exerted in one of them while keeping the others constant. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Campus Universitario Of Rabanales, Animal and Plant Health Agency, University of Surrey, Operations Research and Food Research Center
Type: | Journal: Veterinary microbiology | Year: 2016

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) exists as two distinct viruses, type 1 (PRRSV-1) and type 2 (PRRSV-2). Atrophy of the thymus in PRRSV-2 infected piglets has been associated with a loss of thymocytes. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of PRRSV-1 strains of differing virulence on the thymus of infected piglets by analysing the histomorphometry, the presence of apoptotic cells and cells producing cytokines. Thymic samples were taken from animals experimentally infected (with LV, SU1-bel, and 215-06 strains) or mock inoculated animals at 3, 7 and 35days post-infection (dpi) and processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. PRRSV antigen was detected in the thymus from 3dpi until the end of the study in all virus-infected animals with the highest numbers of infected cells detected in SU1-bel group. The histomorphometry analysis and counts of CD3(+) thymocytes in the thymic cortex displayed significant differences between strains at different time-points (p0.011), with SU1-bel group showing the most severe changes at 7dpi. Cell death displayed statistically significant increase in the cortex of all infected animals, with SU1-bel group showing the highest rate at 3 and 7dpi. The number of cells immunostained against IL-1, TNF- and IL-10 were predominantly detected in the medulla (p0.01). An increase in the number of TNF- and IL-10 positive cells was observed in LV and SU-1bel groups. Our results demonstrate that different PRRSV-1 strains induced depletion of the thymic cortex due to apoptosis of thymocytes and that the most severe depletion was associated with the highly virulent SU1-bel strain.

Dez C.M.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Dez C.M.,University of California at Irvine | Trujillo I.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Barrio E.,University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2011

Background and AimsGenetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin.MethodsThe genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars.Key ResultsOnly 9·6 out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives.ConclusionsThis study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. © The Author 2011.

Diez C.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Imperato A.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Imperato A.,University of Naples Federico II | Rallo L.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | And 2 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2012

Core collections reflecting the diversity of large Germplasm collections are valuable tools to conserve and evaluate the genetic resources more effectively. Three strategies using two different search algorithms were trained to develop the most representative nested core collection of the World Olive Germplasm Bank (WOGB) of Cordoba (Spain), the largest and best characterized collection of olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars worldwide. The original dataset was composed of 378 olive accessions from 21 different countries characterized by 14 microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats [SSRs]). Each nested core collection included five subsets representing different percentages of the base collection (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30%). The strategy maximizing the allele coverage implemented in the software Core Hunter was chosen as the best. The five subsets developed by this method captured the maximum number of alleles showing fewer significant differences in their frequencies with respect to the whole collection. Additionally, a balanced geographical composition was observed in the nested subsets in spite of the strong overrepresentation of western Mediterranean accessions present in the WOGB. The results of this study are aimed at improving both the conservation and management of olive genetic resources and the study of differential genotype × environment interactions by testing a minimum number of accessions. © Crop Science Society of America.

Martin M.A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Martin M.A.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Fernandez R.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Fernandez R.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | And 4 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2013

The manufacturing of orange juice generates high volumes of orange peel waste which should not be deposited in landfill according to current recommendations. Furthermore, glycerol is a compound co-generated in biodiesel manufacturing, but the volume generated is higher than the current demand for pure glycerol. The anaerobic co-digestion of orange peel waste with residual glycerol could reduce the inhibitory effect of some compounds and provide a correct nutrient balance. Under mesophilic temperature and semi-continuous conditions, a mixture of orange peel waste-residual glycerol of 1:1 (in COD) operated favorably for organic loads up to 2.10g VS/L. At higher organic loads, the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and a decrease in the pH caused process destabilization. The methane yield coefficient was quite constant, with a mean value of 330±51mLSTP/gVSadded, while the organic loading rate (OLR) reached a mean value of 1.91±0.37kgVS/m3d (17.59±2.78kgmixture/m3d) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied in a range of 8.5-30.0 d. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ghaniyari-Benis S.,Sharif University of Technology | Martin A.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Borja R.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa
Process Biochemistry | Year: 2010

A modelling study on the anaerobic digestion process of a synthetic medium-strength wastewater containing molasses as a carbon source was carried out at different influent conditions. The digestion was conducted in a laboratory-scale hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor with three compartments and a working volume of 54L, which operated at mesophilic temperature (35°C). Two different kinetic models (one model was based on completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) in series and the other an axial diffusion or dispersion model typical of deviations of plug-flow reactors), were assessed and compared to simulate the organic matter removal or fractional conversion. The kinetic constant (k) obtained by using the CSTR in series model was 0.60±0.07h-1, while the kinetic parameter achieved with the dispersion model was 0.67±0.06h-1, the dispersion coefficient (D) being 46. The flow pattern observed in the reactor studied was intermediate between plug-flow and CSTR in series systems, although the plug-flow system was somewhat predominant. The dispersion model allowed for a better fit of the experimental results of fractional conversions with deviations lower than 8% between the experimental and theoretical values. By contrast, the CSTR in series model predicted the behaviour of the reactor somewhat less accurately showing deviations lower than 10% between the experimental and theoretical values of the fractional conversion. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ghaniyari-Benis S.,Sharif University of Technology | Martin A.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Borja R.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Martin M.A.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Hedayat N.,University of Tehran
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering | Year: 2012

A modelling of the anaerobic digestion process of molasses was conducted in a 70-L multistage anaerobic biofilm reactor or hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor with six compartments at an operating temperature of 26 °C. Five hydraulic retention times (6, 16, 24, 72 and 120 h) were studied at a constant influent COD concentration of 10,000 mg/L. Two different kinetic models (one was based on a dispersion model with first-order kinetics for substrate consumption and the other based on a modification of the Young equation) were evaluated and compared to predict the organic matter removal efficiency or fractional conversion. The first-order kinetic constant obtained with the dispersion model was 0.28 h -1, the Peclet dispersion number being 45, with a mean relative error of 2%. The model based on the Young equation predicted the behaviour of the reactor more accurately showing deviations lower than 10% between the theoretical and experimental values of the fractional conversion, the mean relative error being 0.9% in this case. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Lopez-Jimenez F.J.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Ballesteros-Gomez A.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Rubio S.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

An organic solvent-free microextraction was proposed as a simple and fast sample treatment for the determination of PAH4 (viz. benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluorantene and benzo[a]pyrene). The method involved the stirring of 200 mg of foodstuff with 200 lL of a supramolecular solvent made up of octanoic acid/tetrabutylammonium octanoate vesicles for 10 min. Then, the extract was analysed by liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection. Neither dilution nor further clean-up steps of the extracts were needed. The limit of quantitation of the method (0.3-0.7 lg kg 1) was below the threshold limit established for benzo[a]pyrene in food by EU directives (1-10 lg kg 1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of smoked meat and fish, bivalve mollusks and processed cereal-based food for infants. Benzo[a]pyrene was quantified and/or detected in most of the analysed samples. The recoveries obtained for PAH4 were from 92% to 103% with relative standard deviations less than 5%. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Napp S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Garcia-Bocanegra I.,Campus Universitario Of Rabanales | Pages N.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Allepuz A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2013

The importation of infected hosts and the arrival of windborne infected Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were considered unlikely mechanisms for bluetongue virus (BTV) incursion into a BTV-free area during the recent BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) epidemic in northern Europe. Therefore, alternative mechanisms need to be considered. Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand, and an important consequence of this is vector-borne pathogen importation. One important aspect of bluetongue (BT) epidemiology not yet addressed is the potential movement of infected Culicoides via transport and trade networks. Therefore, a risk assessment model was constructed to assess the probability of a BTV outbreak as a consequence of the introduction of Culicoides via these networks. The model was applied to calculate the risk for a BTV-8 epidemic in Spain in 2007 caused by the introduction of Culicoides from affected northern European countries. The mean weighted annual risk for an outbreak caused by transportation of a single vector from an affected northern European country varied from 1.8 × 10-7 to 3.0 × 10-13, with the highest risks associated with Culicoides imported from Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and France. For this mechanism to pose a significant risk to BTV-free countries, a large number of vectors would have to be transported. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

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