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Castro-Quezada I.,University of Granada | Artacho R.,University of Granada | Molina-Montes E.,Campus Universitario Of La Cartuja | Molina-Montes E.,CIBER ISCIII | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition

Purpose: To examine the association between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and dietary glycaemic load (GL) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a rural elderly population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 343 subjects (60–74 years) residing in a Spanish rural area (Priego de Córdoba). Subjects were selected using stratified random sampling. Food intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values to each item of the FFQ to estimate dietary GI and GL. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted to assess the association between GI/GL with CVD risk factors (blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure). The potential modifying effect of sex, smoking status, diabetes and medication has been explored. Results: A statistically significant inverse association between dietary GI and blood glucose was found in the multivariate model (p = 0.029): for every 10 unit increment of GI, serum glucose levels decreased by 0.2 units. However, statistical significance was lost after controlling for diabetes or hypoglycaemic medication. In the crude model, dietary GL was associated with triglycerides (ß for every 10 GL units increase = 0.70, p = 0.005), but statistical significance was lost in the multivariate model (p = 0.508). No associations were found between dietary GI/GL and the rest of the variables studied. Conclusions: Neither dietary GI nor GL were associated with CVD risk factors in the study population of Priego de Córdoba. Results obtained suggest the necessity to consider the diagnosis of diabetes in these studies. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Tagiew R.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Ignatov D.I.,National Research University Higher School of Economics | Amroush F.,Campus Universitario Of La Cartuja
Proceedings - IEEE 13th International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, ICDMW 2013

In this paper, we want to introduce experimental economics to the field of data mining and vice versa. It continues related work on mining deterministic behavior rules of human subjects in data gathered from experiments. Game-theoretic predictions partially fail to work with this data. Equilibria also known as game-theoretic predictions solely succeed with experienced subjects in specific games - conditions, which are rarely given. Contemporary experimental economics offers a number of alternative models apart from game theory. In relevant literature, these models are always biased by philosophical plausibility considerations and are claimed to fit the data. An agnostic data mining approach to the problem is introduced in this paper - the philosophical plausibility considerations follow after the correlations are found. No other biases are regarded apart from determinism. The dataset of the paper ''Social Learning in Networks' by Choi et al 2012 is taken for evaluation. As a result, we come up with new findings. As future work, the design of a new infrastructure is discussed. © 2013 IEEE. Source

Lacasan M.,Campus Universitario Of La Cartuja | Lacasan M.,CIBER ISCIII | Blanco-Munoz J.,National Institute of Public Health | Borja-Aburto V.H.,Mexican Institute of Social Security IMSS | And 8 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition

Objective To evaluate the effects on anencephaly risk of the interaction between the maternal profile of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine and the 677C→T polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Design Case-control study paired (1:1) on maternity clinic, date of birth and state of residence. Cases of anencephaly were identified using the Registry of the Mexican Neural Tube Defect Epidemiological Surveillance System. Case and control mothers were selected from the same maternity departments. All mothers completed a structured questionnaire and blood samples were obtained to determine the MTHFR 677CTT polymorphism and biochemical profile. Setting Mexico, Puebla and Guerrero states, Mexico. Subjects A total of 151 mothers of cases and controls were enrolled from March 2000 to February 2001. We had complete information on biochemical profile and MTHFR C677T polymorphism for ninety-eight mothers of cases and ninety-one mothers of controls. Results The adjusted models show that the risk of anencephaly in mothers with 677TT genotype was reduced by 18 % (OR = 0.82; 95 % CI 0.72, 0.94) for each 1 ng/ml increment in serum folate. In terms of tertiles, mothers with 677TT genotype with serum folate levels in the upper tertile (>14.1 ng/ml) had a 95 % lower risk to have a child with anencephaly than mothers with serum folate levels in the first and second tertiles (P trend = 0.012). Conclusions Our data agree with the hypothesis of a gene-nutrient interaction between MTHFR 677CTT polymorphism and folate status. We observed a protective effect on anencephaly risk only in mothers with 677TT genotype as serum folate levels increased. © 2012 The Authors. Source

Schilmann A.,National Institute of Public Health | Lacasana M.,Campus Universitario Of La Cartuja | Lacasana M.,CIBER ISCIII | Blanco-Munoz J.,National Institute of Public Health | And 3 more authors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Objectives: Exposure assessment to a single pesticide does not capture the complexity of the occupational exposure. Recently, pesticide use patterns analysis has emerged as an alternative to study these exposures. The aim of this study is to identify the pesticide use pattern among flower growers in Mexico participating in the study on the endocrine and reproductive effects associated with pesticide exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to gather retrospective information on pesticide use applying a questionnaire to the person in charge of the participating flower growing farms. Information about seasonal frequency of pesticide use (rainy and dry) for the years 2004 and 2005 was obtained. Principal components analysis was performed. Results: Complete information was obtained for 88 farms and 23 pesticides were included in the analysis. Six principal components were selected, which explained more than 70% of the data variability. The identified pesticide use patterns during both years were: 1. fungicides benomyl, carbendazim, thiophanate and metalaxyl (both seasons), including triadimephon during the rainy season, chlorotalonyl and insecticide permethrin during the dry season; 2. insecticides oxamyl, biphenthrin and fungicide iprodione (both seasons), including insecticide methomyl during the dry season; 3. fungicide mancozeb and herbicide glyphosate (only during the rainy season); 4. insecticides metamidophos and parathion (both seasons); 5. insecticides omethoate and methomyl (only rainy season); and 6. insecticides abamectin and carbofuran (only dry season). Some pesticides do not show a clear pattern of seasonal use during the studied years. Conclusions: The principal component analysis is useful to summarise a large set of exposure variables into smaller groups of exposure patterns, identifying the mixtures of pesticides in the occupational environment that may have an interactive effect on a particular health effect. Source

Aguilar-Garduno C.,Campus Universitario Of La Cartuja | Lacasana M.,Campus Universitario Of La Cartuja | Lacasana M.,CIBER ISCIII | Blanco-Munoz J.,National Institute of Public Health | And 2 more authors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Objective: To assess the relationship between parental occupational exposure to organic solvents, and the risk of anencephaly in Mexico. Methods: A case-control study was conducted based on the registers of the Epidemiological Surveillance System for Neural Tube Defects in Mexico; 151 cases of anencephaly of >20 weeks' gestation were included. A control, born alive and without any apparent congenital malformations at birth, was selected for each case in the same maternity service in which the case was born. Information on occupational exposures, lifestyle habits, reproductive history, use of medicines, supplementation with multivitamins and folic acid, was obtained by a general questionnaire; a food frequency questionnaire was also applied to obtain information of daily intake of folate and other B vitamins. Occupational exposure to organic solvents was based on job title as a proxy for exposure and analysed considering two critical periods around conception. Results: In logistic regression analysis, the odds of having a child with anencephaly was higher if the mother or the father was occupationally exposed to organic solvents during the periconceptional period, or when both parents or at least one of them were occupationally exposed during this period with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.97 (95% CI 1.36 to 6.52). Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that both maternal and paternal occupational exposure to organic solvents can increase the probability of having a child with anencephaly. Source

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