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Saletti-Cuesta L.,Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica | Delgado A.,Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica | Delgado A.,Campus Universitario Of Cartuja | Ortiz-Gomez T.,University of Granada | Lopez-Fernandez L.A.,Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica
Revista Espanola de Salud Publica | Year: 2013

Background: The concept of achievement is important to study the professional development. In medicine there are gender inequalities in career. The purpose was to know and compare the professional achievement's perceptions and attributions of female and male primary care physicians in Andalusia. Method: Qualitative study with 12 focus groups (October 2009 to November 2010). Population: primary care physicians. Sample: intentionally segmented by age, sex and health care management. Were conducted by sex: two groups with young physicians, two groups with middle aged and two with health care management. Total: 32 female physician and 33 male physicians. Qualitative content analysis with Nuddist Vivo. Results: Female and male physicians agree to perceive internal achievements and to consider aspects inherent to the profession as external achievements. The most important difference is that female physician related professional achievement with affective bond and male physician with institutional merit. Internal attributions are more important for female physician who also highlight the importance of family, the organization of working time and work-family balance. Patients, continuing education, institutional resources and computer system are the most important attributions for male physician. Conclusions: There are similarities and differences between female and male physicians both in the understanding and the attributions of achievement. The differences are explained by the gender system. The perception of achievement of the female physicians questions the dominant professional culture and incorporates new values in defining achievement. The attributions reflect the unequal impact of family and organizational variables and suggest that the female physicians would be changing gender socialization. Source

Romero-Frias E.,University of Granada | Del-Barrio-Garcia S.,Campus Universitario Of Cartuja
Profesional de la Informacion | Year: 2014

Digital humanities (DH) have adopted various institutional forms in academia (centres, networks, projects, etc.). This study addresses the current state of the discipline through an analysis of DH centres, as reported by CenterNet. We analysed websites, missions, and the social media presence of the centres in order to provide an overall picture. Results show a remarkable heterogeneity in DH organisation. Finally, some of the most debated issues are discussed, such as the borders of the field, inclusion and exclusion issues, or a new cultural colonialism. Source

Ocana-Riola R.,Campus Universitario Of Cartuja | Ocana-Riola R.,Institute Investigacion Biosanitaria Of Granada
Statistics in Biosciences | Year: 2016

Statistics plays a crucial role in research, planning and decision-making in the health sciences. Progress in technologies and continued research in computational statistics has enabled us to implement sophisticated mathematical models within software that are handled by non-statistician researchers. As a result, over the last decades, medical journals have published a host of papers that use some novel statistical method. The aim of this paper is to present a review on how the statistical methods are being applied in the construction of scientific knowledge in health sciences, as well as, to propose some improvement actions. From the early twentieth century, there has been a remarkable surge in scientific evidence alerting on the errors that many non-statistician researchers were making in applying statistical methods. Today, several studies continue showing that a large percentage of articles published in high-impact factor journals contain errors in data analysis or interpretation of results, with the ensuing repercussions on the validity and efficiency of the research conducted. Scientific community should reflect on the causes that have led to this situation, the consequences to the advancement of scientific knowledge and the solutions to this problem. © 2016 International Chinese Statistical Association Source

Ocana-Riola R.,Campus Universitario Of Cartuja
Geospatial Health | Year: 2010

Many morbid-mortality atlases and small-area studies have been carried out over the last decade. However, the methods used to draw up such research, the interpretation of results and the conclusions published are often inaccurate. Often, the proliferation of this practice has led to inefficient decision-making, implementation of inappropriate health policies and negative impact on the advancement of scientific knowledge. This paper reviews the most frequent errors in the design, analysis and interpretation of small-area epidemiological studies and proposes a diagnostic evaluation test that should enable the scientific quality of published papers to be ascertained. Nine common mistakes in disease mapping methods are discussed. From this framework, and following the theory of diagnostic evaluation, a standardised test to evaluate the scientific quality of a small-area epidemiology study has been developed. Optimal quality is achieved with the maximum score (16 points), average with a score between 8 and 15 points, and low with a score of 7 or below. A systematic evaluation of scientific papers, together with an enhanced quality in future research, will contribute towards increased efficacy in epidemiological surveillance and in health planning based on the spatio-temporal analysis of ecological information. Source

Escolano-Margarit M.V.,University of Granada | Ramos R.,CIBER ISCIII | Beyer J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Csabi G.,University of Pecs | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Beneficial effects of perinatal DHA supply on later neurological development have been reported. Weassessed the effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the neurological development of their children. Healthy pregnant women from Spain, Germany, and Hungary were randomly assigned to a dietary supplement consisting of either fish oil (FO) (500 mg/d DHA + 150 mg/d EPA), 400 mg/d 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, both, or placebo from wk 20 of gestation until delivery. Fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) were determined in maternal blood at gestational wk 20 and 30 and in cord and maternal blood at delivery. Neurological development was assessed with the Hempel examination at the age of 4 y and the Touwen examination at 5.5 y. Minor neurological dysfunction, neurological optimality score (NOS), and fluency score did not differ between groups at either age, but the odds of children with the maximal NOS score increased with every unit increment in cord blood DHA level at delivery in plasma PL (95% CI: 1.094-2.262), erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine (95% CI: 1.091-2.417), and erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine (95% CI: 1.003-2.643). We conclude that higher DHA levels in cord blood may be related to a better neurological outcome at 5.5 y of age. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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