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Moreno M.D.L.,University of Seville | Munoz-Suano A.,Biomedal S.L. | Lopez-Casado M.A.,Hospital Virgen de Las Nieves | Torres M.I.,Campus Universitario Las Lagunillas | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The available immunomethods for gluten quantitation could underestimate or overestimate the net immunoactivity of foods and beverages if the chosen analytical antibody is not specific to the relevant gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP). Accurate detection of the most active GIP is desirable to assess the potential celiac toxicity of food. We evaluated the capacity of the G12 monoclonal antibody for selectively depleting GIP in samples from two different gluteomes. Samples of hydrolyzed gliadin from wheat and a barley beer were used. The input (starting peptide digest of prolamins), the flow-through (unbound peptides), and the output (captured peptides) were analyzed by G12 and R5 competitive ELISA as well as by stimulation assays of T-cells from celiac patients. Most of the GIP were retained by the G12-agarose and represented the largest part of the immunogenicity of the gluten peptidome. G12 immunodepletion experiments with hydrolyzed gluten showed that this antibody reacted with those with the highest immunoactivity for celiac patients. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Real A.,University of Seville | Comino I.,University of Seville | de Lorenzo L.,University of Seville | de Lorenzo L.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Traditionally, treatment with a GFD has excluded wheat, barley and rye, while the presence of oats is a subject of debate. The most-recent research indicates that some cultivars of oats can be a safe part of a GFD. In order to elucidate the toxicity of the prolamins from oat varieties with low, medium, and high CD toxicity, the avenin genes of these varieties were cloned and sequenced, and their expression quantified throughout the grain development. At the protein level, we have accomplished an exhaustive characterization and quantification of avenins by RP-HPLC and an analysis of immunogenicity of peptides present in prolamins of different oat cultivars. Avenin sequences were classified into three different groups, which have homology with S-rich prolamins of Triticeae. Avenin proteins presented a lower proline content than that of wheat gliadin; this may contribute to the low toxicity shown by oat avenins. The expression of avenin genes throughout the development stages has shown a pattern similar to that of prolamins of wheat and barley. RP-HPLC chromatograms showed protein peaks in the alcohol-soluble and reduced-soluble fractions. Therefore, oat grains had both monomeric and polymeric avenins, termed in this paper gliadin- and glutenin-like avenins. We found a direct correlation between the immunogenicity of the different oat varieties and the presence of the specific peptides with a higher/lower potential immunotoxicity. The specific peptides from the oat variety with the highest toxicity have shown a higher potential immunotoxicity. These results suggest that there is wide range of variation of potential immunotoxicity of oat cultivars that could be due to differences in the degree of immunogenicity in their sequences. © 2012 Real et al. Source

Comino I.,University of Seville | Real A.,University of Seville | De Lorenzo L.,University of Seville | De Lorenzo L.,CSIC - National Center for Biotechnology | And 7 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2011

Background and aims: Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by an abnormal reaction to gluten. Peptides resulting from partially digested gluten of wheat, barley or rye cause inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa. Previous contradictory studies suggest that oats may trigger the abnormal immunological response in patients with CD. Monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against the main immunotoxic 33-mer peptide (A1 and G12) react strongly against wheat, barley and rye but have less reactivity against oats. The stated aim of this study is to test whether this observed reactivity could be related to the potential toxicity of oats for patients with CD. Methods: In the present study, different oat varieties, controlled for their purity and by their distinct protein pattern, were used to examine differences in moAb G12 recognition by ELISA and western blot. Immunogenicity of oat varieties was determined by 33-mer concentration, T cell proliferation and interferon γ production. Results: Three groups of oat cultivars reacting differently against moAb G12 could be distinguished: a group with considerable affinity, a group showing slight reactivity and a third with no detectable reactivity. The immunogenicity of the three types of oats as well as that of a positive and negative control was determined with isolated peripheral blood mononuclear T cells from patients with CD by measurement of cell proliferation and interferon γ release. A direct correlation of the reactivity with G12 and the immunogenicity of the different prolamins was observed. Conclusions: The results showed that the reactivity of the moAb G12 is proportional to the potential immunotoxicity of the cereal cultivar. These differences may explain the different clinical responses observed in patients suffering from CD and open up a means to identify immunologically safe oat cultivars, which could be used to enrich a gluten-free diet. Source

Comino I.,University of Seville | Real A.,University of Seville | Gil-Humanes J.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Piston F.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2012

Scope: The only treatment available for coeliac disease (CD) is a strict diet in which the intake of wheat, barley, rye, or oats is avoided. Barley is a major cereal crop, grown mainly for its use in brewing, and it has high nutritional value. The identification of varieties with a reduced toxicity profile may contribute to improve the diet, the quality of life and health of CD patients. Methods and results: Searching for harmless barleys, we investigated accessions of malting and wild barley, used for developing new cultivated cereals. The CD toxicity profile of barleys was screened using G12 antibody and cell proliferation and IFN-γ release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal biopsies from CD patients. We found a direct correlation between the reactivity with G12 and the immunogenicity of the different barleys. Conclusion: The malting barleys were less immunogenic, with reduced levels of toxic gluten, and were possibly less harmful to CD patients. Our findings could raise the prospect of breeding barley species with low levels of harmful gluten, and the attractive goal of developing nontoxic barley cultivars, always taking into account the Codex standard for foods for special dietary use for persons intolerant to gluten. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Real A.,University of Seville | Comino I.,University of Seville | Moreno Ma.D.L.,University of Seville | Lopez-Casado M.A.,Hospital Virgen de Las Nieves | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Gluten content from barley, rye, wheat and in certain oat varieties, must be avoid in individuals with celiac disease. In most of the Western countries, the level of gluten content in food to be considered as gluten-free products is below 20 parts per million measured by ELISA based on specific anti-gluten peptide antibody. However, in beverages or food suffering complex hydrolytic processes as beers, the relative proportion of reactive peptides for celiac patients and the analytical techniques may differ, because of the diversity of the resulting peptide populations after fermentations. A beer below 20 parts per million of gluten but yet detectable levels of gluten peptides by anti-gliadin 33-mer antibodies (G12 and A1) was analyzed. We identified and characterized the relevant peptides for either antibody recognition or immunoactivity in celiac patients. The beer was fractionated by HPLC. The relative reactivity of the different HPLC fractions to the G12/A1 antibodies correlated to the reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 14 celiac individuals. Peptides from representative fractions classified according to the relative reactivity to G12/A1 antibodies were identified by mass spectrometry. The beer peptides containing sequences with similarity to those of previously described G12 and A1 epitopes were synthesized and confirmed significant reactivity for the antibodies. The most reactive peptides for G12/A1 also confirmed the highest immunogenicity by peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation and interferon γ production from celiac patients. We concluded that preparative HPLC combined with anti-gliadin 33-mer G12/A1 antibodies were very sensitive and specific methods to analyze the relevant immunogenic peptides in hydrolyzed gluten. © 2014 Real et al. Source

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