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Andres V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Mateo-Vivaracho L.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Guillamon E.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Villanueva M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Tenorio M.D.,Complutense University of Madrid
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Bioactive compounds: lycopene, α-, β- and ε-carotenes, ascorbic acid, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, hesperidin, narirutin, genistein, daidzin, daidzein, catechin and epicatechin were quantified in order to provide new information on high pressure (HP) processing (550 and 650 MPa/3 min/20 °C) compared to pasteurization (80 °C/3 min) in a multifruit-soymilk smoothie. Antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH), colour differences and storage effects (45 days/4 °C) were also investigated. HP maintained better original colour (ΔE< 2.82) than pasteurization (ΔE = 3.70), and did not modify the content of bioactive components (α- and ε-carotenes, ascorbic acid, total polyphenols); it even increased the concentration of lycopene and β-carotene and had higher antioxidant capacity than in heat-treated samples. Most remained quite stable under cold storage. About 55% of the ascorbic acid, the main compound relating to antioxidant capacity (r = 0.7399 for FRAP and r = 0.8944 for DPPH), was retained at the end of the storage period. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Garcia-Lafuente A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Moro C.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Villares A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Guillamon E.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Community Psychology | Year: 2011

Inflammation is nowadays well known to be involved in the development of several chronic diseases such as arteriosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Treatment for chronic inflammatory disorders has not been solved yet, and there is an urgent need to find new and safe anti-inflammatory preventive and therapeutic compounds. Medicinal mushrooms have been traditionally used in Asian countries to manage and treat different diseases. On the other hand, edible mushrooms have recently attracted much interest as a functional food because of their antimutagenic, anti-tumoral, anti-viral, anti-thrombotic, hypocholesterolemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-oxidant properties. Among all of these healthy properties, special attention was paid to the immunomodulatory activity of some fungal compounds such as polysaccharides, mainly β-glucans. Recently, some studies have demonstrated that both whole mushrooms and extracts may show anti-inflammatory activity due to the presence of bioactive compounds. This review summarizes the most recent studies investigating immunomodulatory and especially, anti-inflammatory properties of both medicinal and edible mushrooms, the compounds putatively implicated and the mechanisms that were already established. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Guillamon E.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Garcia-Lafuente A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Lozano M.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Darrigo M.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | And 4 more authors.
Fitoterapia | Year: 2010

Edible mushrooms are a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in addition to a growing appeal for humans by their flavors and culinary features. Recently, they have become increasingly attractive as functional foods for their potential beneficial effects on human health. Hence, food industry is especially interested in cultivated and wild edible mushrooms. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Several investigations have shown the influence of mushrooms intake on some metabolic markers (total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, fasting triacylglycerol, homocysteine, blood pressure, homeostatic function and oxidative and inflammatory damage), which potentially may reduce the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. Relevant nutritional aspects of mushrooms include a high fiber supply, a low fat content with low trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids and a low concentration of sodium as well as the occurrence of components such as eritadenine, phenolic compounds, sterols (such as ergosterol), chitosan, triterpenes, etc., which are considered as important responsible agents for some hitherto healthy properties. The aims of this review are to report putative positive effects of mushrooms consumption on cardiovascular diseases risk markers and to identify some putative bioactive compounds involved in these effects. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Moro C.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Palacios I.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Lozano M.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | D'Arrigo M.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Nowadays there is a great interest in the use of edible mushrooms as functional food since they are rich in bioactive compounds. Although their immunomostimulant activity has been largely demonstrated, their potential anti-inflammatory activity has been scarcely explored. We have investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extracts from different edible mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantherellus cibarius, Cratarellus cornucopioides, Lactarius deliciosus and Pleurotus ostreatus, in activated macrophages. The species that exhibited higher anti-inflammatory activities were A. bisporus, C. cibarius and L. deliciosus, inducing inhibition of NO production and iNOS, IL-1β and IL6 mRNAs expression in response to LPS stimulation. C. cornucopioides only induced inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression, and the other species did not present anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, some edible mushrooms species have a potential anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro, suggesting that they could be regarded as a potential source of natural anti-inflammatory agents. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Palacios I.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Garcia-Lafuente A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Guillamon E.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Villares A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2012

Novel water-soluble polysaccharides have been isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Three polysaccharide fractions were obtained by ethanol precipitation from cold water, hot water and hot aqueous NaOH extracts. The fractions were purified by size exclusion chromatography showing a unique carbohydrate occurring in each fraction: PC from the cold fraction, PH from the hot fraction and PB from the hot aqueous NaOH fraction. The analysis of the methylated alditol acetates and the NMR studies revealed that all the polysaccharides displayed a linear backbone. PC was formed by α-(1→3),(1→6)-linked galactopyranosyl residues whereas PH and PB consisted of glucose-linked units. PH was exclusively composed of glucopyranosyl units bound by α-(1→4) linkages whereas PB was a β-linked glucan showing (1→3) and (1→6) glycosidic bonds. The analysis of molecular arrangement by complexation with Congo red showed that only the β-linked polysaccharide (PB) displayed a triple helix conformation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Villares A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Garcia-Lafuente A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Guillamon E.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Mateo-Vivaracho L.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre | Year: 2013

A structural characterization of two polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting bodies of the wild edible mushroom Cantharellus cibarius was performed after extraction and purification. Two polysaccharides were separated by successive aqueous extractions with boiling water and with NaOH aqueous solution (1 M, 100°C), respectively. The size exclusion chromatograms from the separated fractions showed a single peak in each fraction. The polysaccharide from the boiling water fraction (PsCcib-I) was a glucan-type carbohydrate with a molecular weight of 150 kDa. The methylation analysis and NMR experiments showed that PsCcib-I was composed of a main chain consisting of α-(1→6)-Glcp units with β-(1→4)-linked branches every third glucose residue. Differently, the polysaccharide separated from the hot aqueous NaOH fraction (PsCcib-II) had a molecular weight of 120 kDa and appeared to be a glucan-type carbohydrate composed of β-(1→3)-linked glucose units with branches at O-6 every third sugar residue. The complexation with Congo red showed that PsCcib-II displayed a triple helical conformation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Villares A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Mateo-Vivaracho L.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Garcia-Lafuente A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Guillamon E.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0 mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20 C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Palacios I.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Guillamon E.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Garcia-Lafuente A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Villares A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria
Current Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2012

Water-soluble polysaccharides have been extracted from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes mushrooms. Three carbohydrate fractions (cold water, hot water and hot aqueous NaOH) from the mushrooms were separated by ethanol precipitation. Size exclusion chromatography revealed the presence of a unique polysaccharide in each fraction. Cold water fraction polysaccharide (PLeC) was composed of glucose and galactose bound by (1→3) and (1→4) linkages with a high degree of branching at O-3 and O-4 of galactose residues. Hot water fraction polysaccharide (PLeH) showed (1→4),(1→6)-linked glucopyranosyl residues with branches at O-4 and O-6. Differently, hot aqueous NaOH fraction (PLeB) consisted of a (1→3),(1→6)-linked glucan branched at O-3 and O-6. NMR studies revealed that the polysaccharides PLeC and PLeH displayed both α and β configurations whereas PLeB presented β anomeric configuration. The analysis of molecular arrangement by complexation with Congo red showed that the three polysaccharides (PLeC, PLeH and PLeB) displayed a triple helix conformation. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Villares A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria
Carbohydrate Research | Year: 2013

Three polysaccharides were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Calocybe gambosa by cold water (PS-Cg fC), hot water (PS-Cg fH), and hot aqueous NaOH (PS-Cg fB) extractions. The size exclusion chromatograms presented in all cases a single peak showing a molecular weight of 145 kDa. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and NMR analysis, the structure of the three polysaccharides appeared to be equivalent. The three carbohydrates were composed of glucose and the methylation analysis showed that the units were (1→4),(1→6)-linked with a degree of branching (DB) of 4%. NMR experiments showed that the three fractions contained the same polysaccharide. 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that the linkages were β-type in all cases. The complexation with Congo red demonstrated that the polysaccharides displayed a triple-strand helical conformation. The polysaccharides were composed of a repeating unit with a structure as below →[6)-β-D-Gic-(1]21→6)-β-D-Glc-(1→6)-β- D-Glc-(1→ 4↑1 [β-D-Glc]2. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Palacios I.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Guillamon E.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Garcia-Lafuente A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria | Villares A.,Campus Universitario Duques Of Soria
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2014

The influence of lyophilization on the aromatic profile of two different truffles from Spain (Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum) and a cultivated truffle (Tuber indicum) was evaluated by means of the headspace analysis. The volatile compounds were separated by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. The truffle aroma contained the characteristic compounds, such as 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and dimethyl sulfide. Lyophilization and the subsequent rehydration of the truffles did not affect significantly the aroma profile of T.melanosporum; however, the volatile contents of T.indicum were slightly modified and those of T.aestivum changed after the treatment, in terms of reducing the 2-butanol and 2-butanone percentages and increasing the 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal concentrations. From this study, we can conclude that truffle aromatic profile of the species T.melanosporum and T.indicum is mainly maintained after lyophilization whereas T.aestivum profile is substantially modified. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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