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Sales G.,Centro TAMAR ICMBio and Fundacao Pro TAMAR | Giffoni B.B.,Projeto Tamar Fundacao Pro Tamar | Fiedler F.N.,Centro TAMAR ICMBio and Fundacao Pro TAMAR | Azevedo V.N.G.,Claro | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2010

1. Incidental catches by the pelagic longline fishery is a major global threat for loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtles. 2. The reduction of incidental capture and post-release mortality of sea turtles in the Brazilian pelagic longline fishery, operating in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, was investigated by comparing the performance of 18/0 circle hooks with 9/0 J-type (control) hooks. Hook selectivity experiments were performed between 2004 and 2008, in a total of 26 trips, 229 sets and 145 828 hooks. The experimental design included alternating control and experimental hooks along sections of the mainline. 3. An overall decrease in capture rates for loggerhead turtles of 55% and for leatherbacks of 65% were observed when using circle hooks. In addition, deep-hooking in loggerheads decreased significantly from 25% using J-hooks to 5.8% with circle hooks, potentially increasing post-release survival. 4. Circle hooks increased catch rates of most of the main target species, including tunas (bigeye Thunnus obesus and albacore T. alalunga), and sharks (blue Prionace glauca and requiem sharks of the genus Carcharinus), with no difference in the capture rates of yellowfin tuna (T. albacares), shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus), hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini and S. zygaena), and dolphinfish or mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). On the other hand, a significant decrease in the capture rate of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) was detected when using circle hooks. 5. Overall, results support the effectiveness of using circle hooks for the conservation of loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles, with positive effects on capture of most target species of the south-western Atlantic longline fishery. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Goncalves J.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Duarte M.M.M.F.,Campus Universitario Camobi | Fiorenza A.M.,Campus Universitario Camobi | Spanevello R.M.,Campus Universitario Capao do Leao | And 10 more authors.
BioMetals | Year: 2012

The present study aimed to investigate the influence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cadmium (Cd) poisoning by evaluating Cd concentration in tissues, hematological indices as well as the activity of NTPDase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes of rats exposed to Cd and co-treated with NAC. For this purpose, the rats received Cd (2 mg/kg) and NAC (150 mg/kg) by gavage every other day for 30 days. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6-8): control/saline, NAC, Cd, and Cd/NAC. Cd exposure increased Cd concentration in plasma, spleen and thymus, and NAC co-treatment modulated this augment in both lymphoid organs. Cd exposure reduced red blood cell count, hemoglobin content and hematocrit value. Cd intoxication caused a decrease in total white blood cell count. NAC treatment per se caused an increase in lymphocyte and a decrease in neutrophil counts. On contrary, Cd exposure caused a decrease in lymphocyte and an increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. NAC reversed or ameliorated the hematological impairments caused by Cd poisoning. There were no significant alterations in the NTPDase activity in lymphocytes of rats treated with Cd and/or NAC. Cd caused a decrease in the activities of lymphocyte AChE, whole blood AChE and serum BChE. However, NAC co-treatment was inefficient in counteracting the negative effect of Cd in the cholinesterase activities. The present investigation provides ex vivo evidence supporting the hypothesis that Cd induces immunotoxicity by interacting with the lymphoid organs, altering hematological parameters and inhibiting peripheral cholinesterase activity. Also, it highlights the possibility to use NAC as adjuvant against toxicological conditions. Copyright © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012. Source


Da Silva L.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Avansi W.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Andres J.,Jaume I University | Ribeiro C.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | And 3 more authors.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

We report herein a detailed study on the influence of microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) treatment time on both long and short range structures around Ti atoms of SrTiO3 powders. Few studies have been carried out on short-order structural properties as well as the relationship between the local order and the SrTiO3 photocatalytic properties. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the long-range structure, while the local environment around the Ti atom is probed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the vibration frequencies are investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The faster crystallization of SrTiO3 powders provided by the MAH system resulted in large distortions of Ti-O bond lengths which remain unchanged even for a longer MAH treatment time. Despite the long-range structure being associated with ideal TiO6 clusters, X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements identified the presence of undercoordinated TiO5 clusters. Compared with the reference bulk SrTiO3, the hierarchical SrTiO3 cube-like shape showed enhanced photocatalytic activity, which was associated with the presence of these TiO5 clusters. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed that the superstructures based on a cube-like shape are formed by an assembly process, becoming well defined as a function of MAH treatment time. © 2013 the Owner Societies. Source


Ferreira A.G.K.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Stefanello F.M.,Campus Universitario Capao do Leao | Cunha A.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Da Cunha M.J.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 5 more authors.
Metabolic Brain Disease | Year: 2011

Considering that Na +,K +-ATPase is an embedded-membrane enzyme and that experimental chronic hyperprolinemia decreases the activity of this enzyme in brain synaptic plasma membranes, the present study investigated the effect of chronic proline administration on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, as well as the influence of antioxidant vitamins E plus C on the effects mediated by proline on Na +,K +-ATPase activity in cerebral cortex of rats. The expression of Na +,K +-ATPase catalytic subunits was also evaluated. Results showed that proline increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, suggesting an increase of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, concomitant administration of vitamins E plus C significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation, as well as the inhibition of Na +,K +-ATPase activity caused by proline. We did not observe any change in levels of Na +,K +-ATPase mRNA transcripts after chronic exposure to proline and vitamins E plus C. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms through which proline exerts its effects on brain function and suggest that treatment with antioxidants may be beneficial to treat neurological dysfunctions present in hyperprolinemic patients. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Mendes G.R.L.,Campus Universitario Capao do Leao | de Freitas C.H.,Campus Universitario Capao do Leao | Scaglioni P.T.,FURG | Schmidt C.G.,FURG | Furlong E.B.,FURG
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2013

The best conditions for osmotic dehydration of oranges was studied, assessed by determining the physico-chemical characteristics of the fruit. The study was conducted in 23 full factorial experimental design to evaluate the influence of time, solution concentration and fruit:solution ratio on the solid gain, water loss and mass reduction of osmotically dehydrated oranges. After dehydration, the fruits were dried in tray dryer until 20% moisture. In the product the pH, titratable acidity, vitamin C, carotenoids, phenols content and color were determined. The best results of osmotic dehydration were obtained using a sucrose solution 60 °Brix, fruit:solution ratio 1:3 for 90 min, that resulted in 3.5 gsolid 100g-1, 10.6 gwater 100g-1 and 7.1 g 100g-1 of solid gain, water loss and weight reduction, respectively. The losses of phenolic content and antioxidant activity were 45.1 and 37.3% lower than in conventional drying, demonstrating the efficiency of the process for the preservation of functional properties of the product. Source

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