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Caraffa di Catanzaro, Italy

Chiesa L.,University of Milan | Nobile M.,University of Milan | Arioli F.,University of Milan | Britti D.,Campus S. Venuta | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

A follow-up of antibiotics (tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins and amphenicols) in the bovine urine is important for two reasons: to understand if they are still present in organism, and whether their occurrence in urine might be considered as an environmental risk. A validated HPLC-MS/MS method (Decision 2002/657/EC) for antibiotics determination in bovine urine was developed. CCα and CCβ were in the range of 0.58-0.83 and 0.55-1.1 ng mL-1, respectively. Recoveries were 92-108%, with inter-day repeatability below 12%. Analysis of bovine urine revealed frequent presence of tetracyclines, which was related with animal's age. The cause, most presumably, might be found in different therapeutic protocols applied for veal calves and young bulls enrolled in this study. Most abundant was oxytetracycline with highest level in veal calves (1718 ng mL-1) vs. young bulls (2.8 ng mL-1). Our results indicate the necessity of antibiotics monitoring in bovine urine before animals undergo further processing in the food industry. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Impellizzeri D.,Messina University | Esposito E.,Messina University | Di Paola R.,Messina University | Ahmad A.,Messina University | And 6 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the family of the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs). Recently, several studies demonstrated that PEA is an important analgesic, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective mediator. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of co-ultramicronized PEA + luteolin formulation on the modulation of the inflammatory response in mice subjected to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).Methods: CIA was induced by an intradermally injection of 100 μl of the emulsion (containing 100 μg of bovine type II collagen (CII)) and complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) at the base of the tail. On day 21, a second injection of CII in CFA was administered. Mice subjected to CIA were administered PEA (10 mg/kg 10% ethanol, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or co-ultramicronized PEA + luteolin (1 mg/kg, i.p.) every 24 hours, starting from day 25 to 35.Results: Mice developed erosive hind-paw arthritis when immunized with CII in CFA. Macroscopic clinical evidence of CIA first appeared as periarticular erythema and edema in the hindpaws. The incidence of CIA was 100% by day 28 in the CII-challenged mice, and the severity of CIA progressed over a 35-day period with a resorption of bone. The histopathology of CIA included erosion of the cartilage at the joint. Treatment with PEA or PEA + luteolin ameliorated the clinical signs at days 26 to 35 and improved histologic status in the joint and paw. The degree of oxidative and nitrosative damage was significantly reduced in PEA + luteolin-treated mice, as indicated by nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were significantly reduced by PEA + luteolin treatment.Conclusions: We demonstrated that PEA co-ultramicronized with luteolin exerts an antiinflammatory effect during chronic inflammation and ameliorates CIA. © 2013 Impellizzeri et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Campolo M.,Messina University | Paola R.D.,Messina University | Impellizzeri D.,Messina University | Crupi R.,Messina University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2013

Dietary olive oil supplementation and more recently, olive oil phenols have been recommended as important therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. Ole has several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral and for these reasons, is becoming an important subject of study in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ole aglycone on the modulation of the secondary events in mice subjected to intestinal IRI. This was induced in mice by clamping the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk for 30 min, followed by release of the clamp, allowing reperfusion for 1 h. After 60 min of reperfusion, animals were killed for histological examination of the ileum tissue and immunohistochemical localization of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and P-sel); moreover, by Western blot analysis, we investigated the activation of NF-κB and IκBα. In addition, we evaluated the apoptosis process, as shown by TUNEL staining and Bax/Bcl-2 expressions. The results obtained by the histological and molecular examinations showed in Ole aglycone-treated mice, a decrease of inflammation and apoptosis pathway versus SAO-shocked mice. In conclusion, we propose that the olive oil compounds, in particular, the Ole aglycone, could represent a possible treatment against secondary events of intestinal IRI.

Impellizzeri D.,Messina University | Esposito E.,Messina University | Mazzon E.,Messina University | Mazzon E.,IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo | And 9 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Several olive oil phenolic compounds, such us oleuropein have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant activity, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of oleuropein aglycone, a hydrolysis product of oleuropein, in the inflammatory response, in particular in the secondary injury associated with the mouse model of spinal cord trauma. The injury was induced by application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy in mice. Oleuropein aglycone was administered in mice (100 μg/kg, 40 μg/kg, 20 μg/kg, 10% ethanol, i.p.) 1 h and 6 h after the trauma. The treatment with oleuropein aglycone significantly decreased: (1) histological damage, (2) motor recovery, (3) nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression and IKB-α degradation, (4) protein kinase A (PKA) activity and expression, (5) pro-inflammatory cytokines production such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), 6) inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, (7) neutrophil infiltration, (8) lipid peroxidation, (9) nitrotyrosine and poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) formation, (10) glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels, (11) apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand expression, Caspase 3, Bax and Bcl-2 expression). Thus, we propose that olive oil phenolic constituents such as oleuropein aglycone may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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