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Peng W.,Campus Management
Resources Policy | Year: 2011

Coal is the major primary energy which fuels the economic growth in China. The Soviet-style institution of the coal sector was adopted after the People's Republic was founded in 1949. But since the end of 1970s there have been major changes: the market mechanism was introduced to the coal sector and the Major State Coal mines were transferred from central to local governments. This paper explains these market-oriented and decentralized reforms and explores their implications for the power sector, now the largest single consumer of coal. The argument of this paper is that the market-oriented and decentralized reforms in the coal sector were influenced by the changes in state energy investment priority as well as the relationship between the central and local governments in the context of broader reforms within China's economy. However, these market-oriented and decentralized reforms have not equally influenced the power sector. Even though initial coal sector reform spurred power generation, the subsequent fragmented reforms raise concern about electricity shortages. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Cato M.S.,Campus Management
Environmental Values | Year: 2011

Green economists are clear in their support for localisation, but there is little definitional clarity around the concept of a local economy: how large it would be, or what principles might be used to divide the world into provisioning units. This paper proposes that the 'bioregion' might be a useful concept in designing more local systems of resource supply. The paper is a scoping exercise which starts to explore how the concept of a 'bioregion' might be useful within theoretical economics, outlines key aspects of a bioregional economy, and sketches ideas for a future research agenda. © 2011 The White Horse Press.

Purpose: Previous research has shown high prevalence rates for stress and psychiatric morbidity in rural areas of Pakistan, but prevalence findings from urban areas vary widely (between 18 and 70 %). Many of these studies have focused on special populations and may not be representative of the general population in urban settings. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain prevalence and predictors of psychological distress in a representative sample of community dwelling adults from mid-low to low-income urban areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Method: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken utilizing probability-based sampling from five mid-low to low-income communities of Karachi. Measures included the twelve-item Urdu version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12), a demographic questionnaire, and questions about financial, health-related and family problems and about access to services and material amenities owned. Results: Seventeen per cent of respondents (N = 1,188) were positive for psychological distress. More females were distressed than males and migrant groups had higher prevalence of distress as compared with natives of the city. Although other studies have shown low education or income to be associated with emotional distress and non-psychotic psychiatric morbidity, our study suggested that having limited income or education may make one more vulnerable to social problems that in turn may be associated with greater distress. An access to services and material amenities had a small but significant association with decreased distress. Conclusion: The overall national prevalence rates may not reveal the influence of gender, region (rural v. urban) and migration on psychological distress. Further research is needed to address mental health of migrant groups in urban centers of Pakistan. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bruton C.M.,University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Floyd M.F.,Campus Management
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2014

Known associations between the built environment and health outcomes have accelerated research examining racial/ethnic and income disparities in access to parks and other community features that support physical activity. Currently, it cannot be concluded that park characteristics are equal in quantity or condition across areas of disparate race/ethnicity and income composition. This study examined natural and built park characteristics across areas of different race/ethnicity and income composition to identify potential disparities. Twenty-one parks in Greensboro, NC (USA), located in minority or non-minority areas and in low or medium-high income areas were inventoried using a park audit tool and GIS. Parks were compared on number of activity areas, features, amenities, size, percent tree canopy, cleanliness, and condition. Independent sample t tests and Mann–Whitney tests were used to compare means of outcome variables. Fisher’s exact tests were applied for categorical variables. Fewer wooded areas and more trash cans were found in low-income and minority areas as compared to medium-high income and non-minority areas. Low-income areas were found to have more picnic areas than their counterparts. Sitting and resting features in non-minority areas were found to be cleaner than those in minority areas. Results showed some evidence of disparities in park characteristics. Findings can inform park policy and design as well as renovations and maintenance procedures, particularly in specific areas where existing disparities were identified. © 2014, The New York Academy of Medicine.

Esteves Correia A.,Campus Management | Paulo Davim J.,University of Aveiro
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2011

Surface roughness of the workpiece is an important parameter in machining technology. Wiper inserts have emerged as a significantly class of cutting tools, which are increasingly being utilized in last years. This study considers the influence of the wiper inserts when compared with conventional inserts on the surface roughness obtained in turning. Experimental studies were carried out for the carbon steel AISI 1045 because of its great application in manufacturing industry. Surface roughness is represented by different amplitude parameters (Ra, RzD, R3z, Rq, R t, Ra/Rq, Rq/Rt, R a/Rt). With wiper inserts and high feed rate it is possible to obtain machined surfaces with Ra < 0.8 μm (micron). Consequently it is possible to get surface quality in workpiece of mechanics precision without cylindrical grinding operations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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