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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Moratelli R.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica | Peracchi A.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | De Oliveira J.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Twelve species are recognized in the South American bat genus Myotis Kaup (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae), with several nominal forms currently regarded as synonyms, among them Myotis guaycuru Proenca, 1943. Its holotype, so far the only specimen assigned to the species, has not been examined in recent taxonomic reviews. To address the taxonomic status of M. guaycuru, we located and redescribed its holotype and compared it to representatives and/or descriptions of all South American species in the genus. Qualitative traits, namely the plagiopatagium attached at ankles, the short and wooly fur and the lingually displaced P3, unambiguously assign the holotype of M. guaycuru to Myotis simus Thomas (1901). The analysis of cranial variation and pelage color across a wide geographical range of M. simus reveals morphometric and morphological discontinuity between Bolivian and Amazonian/Peruvian samples, the latter including topotypes of M. simus. The holotype of M. guaycuru was found to be morphometrically and morphologically more similar to these Amazonian samples than to the geographically nearer Bolivian sample, preventing the use of this nominal form to refer to the Bolivian population if its distinction suggested by morphometric analyses is confirmed by the analyses of other character systems. Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press. Source

Moratelli R.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica | Moratelli R.,Smithsonian Institution | Wilson D.E.,Smithsonian Institution
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington

Myotis diminutus Moratelli & Wilson, 2011a (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) was known only from the holotype-a subadult collected in a fragment of moist forest on the western slope of the Ecuadorian Andes in 1979. Based on recent work in museum collections, we discovered a second specimen of Myotis diminutus, collected in 1959. This specimen of Myotis diminutus comes from La Guayacana, Narinõ, western Colombia (≈ 135 km north from the type locality); and M. nigricans (Schinz, 1821) also was collected at the same locality. This record confirms the distinctiveness of Myotis diminutus. This species is known from only the Chocó ecoregion, one of the critical biodiversity hotspots on Earth. We have no evidence of living individuals. In this report we also investigate the relationships among Myotis nigricans from eastern and western sides of the Andes. Our results confirm that populations from both sides of the Cordillera represent the same subspecies-Myotis nigricans nigricans. Source

Moratelli R.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica | de Oliveira J.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Myotis albescens (É. Geoffroy, 1806) occurs from Mexico to Uruguay and Argentina. Despite a large number of specimens in collections, its variability in South America has been underestimated, potentially leading to errors in identification. In order to clarify the taxonomic limits of M. albescens and to evaluate previous hypotheses of geographic variation in size we analyzed the type material and studied the variability in South American samples using multivariate exploratory and confirmatory procedures, as well as frequency analyses of discrete morphological data. The presence of a fringe of hairs along the trailing edge of the uropatagium, the long and silky pelage with frosted appearance on the dorsum, ear 9 to 14 mm long, broad interorbital and postorbital constrictions, and a globular braincase were identified as the most useful traits to distinguish M. albescens from its South American congeners. In agreement with Bergman's rule, larger specimens were found in the South. Beyond the geographic component, Individual variation is an important factor affecting the variability in the size and shape of the skull and pelage color. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia. Source

Moratelli R.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica | Peracchi A.L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Dias D.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | De Oliveira J.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Mammalian Biology

The genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae, Myotinae) comprises a diverse group of small to large-sized vespertilionid bats that present a worldwide distribution. Twelve South American species are currently recognized. In this paper we evaluate the morphological and morphometric variation observed in South American populations of the most widespread species, Myotis nigricans. Against this background, two forms can be morphologically distinguished from M. nigricans and other known South American species. We describe these new species, documenting their diagnostic external and cranial characters by comparing them to other sympatric and cryptic species of South American Myotis. In addition, we provide an emended diagnosis of Myotis nigricans. © 2011 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Säugetierkunde. Source

Moratelli R.,Campus Fiocruz da Mata Atlantica | Moratelli R.,Smithsonian Institution | Wilson D.E.,Smithsonian Institution
Journal of Mammalogy

We describe Myotis midastactus sp. nov. from the Bolivian savanna on the basis of differences in fur color, and cranial and external features that unquestionably distinguish it from all other Neotropical Myotis. This new species is morphologically allied to M. simus Thomas, 1901 and other species in the M. ruber group. Myotis midastactus is endemic to Bolivia, where it occurs with 6 congeners-albescens, dinellii, keaysi, nigricans, riparius, and oxyotus. Previously identified as M. simus, M. midastactus is in syntopy with M. nigricans and M. riparius in the department of Santa Cruz, and there is no evidence that true M. simus occurs in Bolivia. © 2014 American Society of Mammalogists. Source

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