Da Rocha J.M.,Campus Do Mar |
Villasante S.,CONICET |
Gonzalez R.T.,Campus Do Mar
In general, approved Total Allowable Catches (TACs) are higher than proposed TACs by the scientific assessment and reported landings approved are higher than approved TAC. We build a simple enforcement agency's behavior model that generates - as a rational behavior - those two facts. The model has two ingredients. First, there exists illegal fishing generated by an imperfect enforcement technology; second, the enforcement agency cannot commit on announced penalties. We show that lack of commitment increases the potential benefits for national enforcement agency of deviating from proposal (scientific optimal) quotas. Although the enforcement agency wants to announce a low quota target to induce a low level of illegal harvest, it will find optimal to revise the quota announced in order to reduce penalties and improve fishermen welfare. Therefore, agencies find it optimal to approve higher quotas than that proposed by the scientific advice. Our main result is to show that when full compliance is not possible, and national agencies cannot commit, the introduction of Individual Transferable Quotas increases the potential benefits for agencies of deviating from the optimal proposed TAC by the scientific advised. © 2013 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Source
Veiga P.,University of Algarve |
Pita C.,University of Algarve |
Rangel M.,University of Algarve |
Goncalves J.M.S.,University of Algarve |
And 13 more authors.
A landing obligation was formally implemented in the European Union (EU) for the first time, as part of the recent reform of the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). Given the reasonable success of the landing obligation in some countries such as the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, this policy is seen as a viable approach to tackle the long-recognized discarding problem in EU waters. However, there has been some debate on whether there is sufficient evidence to support the feasibility of such a measure in the EU-CFP. The EU landing obligation will implicitly include all small-scale fisheries (SSF) provided the species captured are subject to catch limits or minimum sizes (in the case of the Mediterranean). SSF were included irrespective of the fact that the discarding problem in the EU has been historically associated with medium- to large-scale fleets (in particular largely mixed species trawl fisheries). Additionally, past experiences with a discard ban policy are still limited to specific countries and/or specific fisheries. This paper examined the appropriateness and feasibility of the recently implemented EU landing obligation in SSF. The effects in the long-term are unpredictable, but available evidence suggests that in the short to medium-term a landing obligation is likely to bring more negative social, economic and ecological impacts than benefits. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Villasante S.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Villasante S.,CONICET |
Villasante S.,The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics |
Rodriguez-Gonzalez D.,Campus Do Mar |
And 3 more authors.
This paper estimates the economic value of the North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) stock under recent catch and several recovery scenarios. The research presents results on: a) what the value of catches and biomass would have been if the EU fishing fleet had followed the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea scientific recommendations (SRs) and Total Allowable Catches (TACs) in the 1986-2010 period; and b) what the value of catches and biomass will be for the 2010-2022 period if the fleet follows the current Common Fisheries Policy Reform (CFPR). Results show that the actual economic value of the stock for the 1986-2010 period has been US$7 billion, which is substantially lower than what would have been predicted had the industry followed the SRs (US$20.7 billion) or approved TACs (US$19.5 billion). Similarly, if catches do not follow the SRs or the approved TACs for the 2010-2022 period the estimated economic value of the stock is predicted to be lower than if they had done so. Further, the losses of non-compliance increase even when a scenario of 50% reduction of discards under the new CFPR is considered. We also show that the status of the stock is strongly dependent on the trade-offs generated by both the non-compliance of scientific recommendations and by the short-term economic incentives of the fishing industry. With most fishery resources fully exploited or overexploited in Europe, opportunities for development lie primarily in restoring depleted stocks and catching fish more efficiently, as is the case of the North Sea cod stock. © 2013 by the authors. Source
Rodriguez G.R.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Bande R.,Campus Do Mar |
Bande R.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Villasante S.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture Economics and Management
Interactions between fisheries and aquaculture have become a major issue that is still insufficiently studied. Therefore, the objective of this article is to test whether the cultured and wild gilthead sea bream in the Spanish seafood markets are integrated. By using the Johansen methodology, cointegration of the price series of farmed and wild gilthead sea bream was tested. In contrast to previous studies, our econometric results show that wild and the farmed gilthead sea bream form two heterogeneous products in the Spanish market. These new results question the generalization currently accepted by the scientific literature that farmed and wild fish are substitutes when they belong to the same species. The binomial product-market, along with some specific features of the Spanish market, such as the negative perceptions of aquaculture by some significant groups of consumers, appeared to have a great explanatory power for justifying these different results. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source
Antelo M.,Campus Do Mar |
Antelo M.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Rodrif;guez D.,Campus Do Mar |
Rodrif;guez D.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
And 4 more authors.
Ocean and Coastal Management
European fish stocks have been overfished for decades and fishing fleets remain too large for the marine resources available. Fish populations could increase and generate more economic value if fishing pressure were reduced for just a few years. Hake has historically been the most representative commercial species of the Spanish fishing sector in the 20th century, and is in high demand in the Spanish market. In this paper we calculate the direct economic value of the Southern stock of European hake (Merluccius merluccius) under "recent catches" and different "rebuilding" scenarios. Three different scenarios are analysed and compared: (i) the real stock situation between 1986 and 2005; (ii) biomass simulation of the stock if the European Union (EU) fishing fleet had followed the ICES scientific recommendations (SRs) for quota allocation from 1986 to 2005; and (iii) biomass simulation of the stock if the EU fishing fleet progressively reduces discards as proposed by the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform between 2012 and 2022.The results suggest that the fishing industry prefers short-term economic profits, because the value of the stock was $415 million, which is higher than the $245 million obtained if the proposed SRs had been respected. If the exploitation rate of the last 20 years continues under the new CFP, the economic value of the stock amounts to only U$S258 million, which is well below the $415 million obtained between 1986 and 2005. Even if the discard volume were progressively reduced by 10-20%, the economic value of the stock would reach only $300 million, which is well below the $436 million estimated by our model if the SRs had been followed. The benefits of following SRs are not restricted to higher economic benefits, but; subsequent restrictive measures on fishing to ensure recovery of the stock might be lower, while consumers would have access to protein from the sea at more affordable prices. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source