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Vasli N.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | Ahmed I.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | Mittal K.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | Ohadi M.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
Psychiatric Genetics | Year: 2016

Non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ID) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with more than 50 mutated genes to date. ID is characterized by deficits in memory skills and language development with difficulty in learning, problem solving, and adaptive behaviors, and affects ∼ 1% of the population. For detection of diseasecausing mutations in such a heterogeneous disorder, homozygosity mapping together with exome sequencing is a powerful approach, as almost all known genes can be assessed simultaneously in a high-throughput manner. In this study, a hemizygous c.786C>G:p.Ile262Met in the testis specific protein Y-encoded-like 2 (TSPYL2) gene and a homozygous c.11335G>A:p.Asp3779Asn in the lowdensity lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2) gene were detected after genome-wide genotyping and exome sequencing in a consanguineous Pakistani family with two boys with mild ID. Mutations in the LRP2 gene have previously been reported in patients with Donnai-Barrow and Stickler syndromes. LRP2 has also been associated with a 2q locus for autism (AUTS5). The TSPYL2 variant is not listed in any single-nucleotide polymorphism databases, and the LRP2 variant was absent in 400 ethnically matched healthy control chromosomes, and is not listed in singlenucleotide polymorphism databases as a common polymorphism. The LRP2 mutation identified here is located in one of the low-density lipoprotein-receptor class A domains, which is a cysteine-rich repeat that plays a central role in mammalian cholesterol metabolism, suggesting that alteration of cholesterol processing pathway can contribute to ID. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mir A.,International Islamic University, Islamabad | Sritharan K.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | Mittal K.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | Vasli N.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | And 19 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2014

In this study, we have performed autozygosity mapping on a large consanguineous Pakistani family segregating with intellectual disability. We identified two large regions of homozygosity-by-descent (HBD) on 16q12.2-q21 and 16q24.1-q24.3. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on an affected individual from the family, but initially, no obvious mutation was detected. However, three genes within the HBD regions that were not fully captured during the WES were Sanger sequenced and we identified a five base pair deletion (actually six base pairs deleted plus one base pair inserted) in exon 7 of the gene FBXO31. The variant segregated completely in the family, in recessive fashion giving a LOD score of 3.95. This variant leads to a frameshift and a premature stop codon and truncation of the FBXO31 protein, p. (Cys283Asnfs*81). Quantification of mRNA and protein expression suggests that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay also contributes to the loss of FBXO31 protein in affected individuals. FBXO31 functions as a centrosomal E3 ubiquitin ligase, in association with SKP1 and Cullin-1, involved in ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation. The FBXO31/SKP1/Cullin1 complex is important for neuronal morphogenesis and axonal identity. FBXO31 also plays a role in dendrite growth and neuronal migration in developing cerebellar cortex. Our finding adds further evidence of the involvement of disruption of the protein ubiquitination pathway in intellectual disability. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Egger G.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | Egger G.,Medical University of Graz | Roetzer K.M.,Medical University of Graz | Noor A.,Campbell Family Brain Research Institute | And 16 more authors.
Neurogenetics | Year: 2014

Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of neurodevelopmental disorders starting in early childhood and is characterized by impairments in communication and reciprocal social interaction and presence of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. The contribution of genetic factors to autism is clear in twin and family studies. It is apparent that, overall, ASD is a complex non-Mendelian disorder. Recent studies suggest that copy number variations (CNVs) play a significant role in the etiology of ASD. For the current work, we recruited 245 family members from 73 ASD families from Styria, Austria. The DNA from probands was genotyped with Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 microarrays to screen for CNVs in their genomes. Analysis of the microarray data was performed using three different algorithms, and a list of stringent calls was compared to existing CNV data from over 2,357 controls of European ancestry. For stringent calls not present in controls, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the CNVs in the probands and in their family members. Twenty-two CNVs were validated from this set (five of which are apparently de novo), many of which appear likely to disrupt genes that may be considered as good candidates for neuropsychiatric disorders, including DLG2, S100B, ARX, DIP2A, HPCAL1, and GPHN. Several others disrupt genes that have previously been implicated in autism, such as BDNF, AUTS2, DPP6, and C18orf22, and our data add to the growing evidence of their involvement in ASD. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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