Sakākā, Saudi Arabia
Sakākā, Saudi Arabia

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Saleh S.K.,Camel and Range Research Center | Saleh S.K.,Animal Health Research Institute AHRI | Al-Ramadhan G.,Camel and Range Research Center | Faye B.,Camel and Range Research Center | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Somatic cell counts and bacteriological examinations were measured in 28 camel milk samples from 2 farms, one with milking machine (farm A) and the second with hand milking (farm B). The milk was analyzed for 6 months after the parturition, every month, the first one occurring one week approximately after delivery. The somatic cell count was higher at the first sampling in the two farms but significantly more in farm B. The microbiological contamination was also higher in farm B (37% samples were contaminated) than in farm A (12%). The somatic cell count decreased all along the lactation stage and increased with the parity but the trends were not significant due to the high variability of the values. On average, the normal level of somatic cell counts is low compared to cow.


Almutairi S.E.,Camel and Range Research Center | Boujenane I.,Institute Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II | Musaad A.,Camel and Range Research Center | Awad-Acharari F.,Camel and Range Research Center
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

The study was based on a set of 256 records for milk yield at 305 days, 1,899 records of test day yield, and 466 growth records collected at Al Jouf center from 1987 to 2009. Except season of calving, milk yield at 305 days was affected by parity and calving year, whereas test day yield was influenced by parity, calving year, stage of lactation, and test milk day. Only birth year had a significant effect on all growth traits, whereas dam's parity influenced weights at birth and 3 months, and birth season affected birth weight, weight at 6 months and average daily gain (ADG) 3-6 months. Variance components estimated using an animal model showed that heritability and repeatability estimates for milk yield at 305 days were 0. 24 and 0. 28, respectively. The corresponding estimates for test day yield were 0. 22 and 0. 66, respectively. Direct heritabilities were 0. 37, 0. 50, 0. 60, and 0. 85 for body weights at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months of age, respectively, and 0. 25, 0. 37, 0. 49, and 0. 29 for ADG 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, and 0-12 months, respectively. The annual genetic progress was 0. 05 kg for milk yield at 305 days and 0. 0003 kg for test day yield. Annual genetic gains during 23 years were 0. 050, -0. 185, 0. 079, and 0. 331 kg for body weights, respectively, and -9, -5, -4, and -13 g, for ADG, respectively. It was concluded that it is necessary to set up a field milk and growth recording system in order to collect a large number of records to check these estimates. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Almutairi S.E.,Camel and Range Research Center | Boujenane I.,Institute Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II | Musaad A.,Camel and Range Research Center | Awad-Acharari F.,Camel and Range Research Center
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

Reproductive traits and calving weight were assessed in Saudi camels, and non-genetic factors influencing them were studied using data collected at Al Jouf centre from 1987 to 2009. Age at first conception, age at first calving, open period, calving interval, gestation length and weight at calving of camels averaged 42.3 months, 54.8 months, 10.6 months, 22.6 months, 377.5 days and 591.9 kg, respectively. A mixed model including the camel as a random effect was used to assess the effect of environmental effects on the traits studied. Age at first conception and age at first calving were affected by camel's birth year. Open period and calving interval were not affected by parity or year of calving. However, camels that calved from October to February had a calving interval of 2.5 months higher than those that calved from March to September. Gestation length was affected by season and year of calving but not by parity or sex of calf. Camels calving from March to September had a gestation length 6.6 days shorter than those calving from October to February. Weight at calving was affected by parity and year of calving but not by season of calving. It was concluded that an improvement in camel reproductive traits is possible both through improving management systems and utilisation of controlled breeding techniques. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Faye B.,Camel and Range Research Center | Konuspayeva G.,Camel and Range Research Center | Konuspayeva G.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2012

Globally, 16.9% of milk consumed by humans comes from species other than cattle. Non-cattle milk is linked more to territories than cows' milk: sheep in the Mediterranean basin, horse in Central Asia, yak in Himalayas, camel in desert regions. These links contribute to the building of dairy ecosystems including specific dairy species, traditional products, farmer know-how, landscape maintenance, cultural activities, market sector and identity markers. According to the variability of milk composition, nutritional and medicinal properties (true or postulated) could be potentially an important added value for producers and dairy sector. Most of non-cattle milk production occurs in emerging or developing countries where population growth and protein demand are increasing. It is not necessary to adapt the western model for intensive dairy production (Holstein-soya-silage) - non-cattle dairy systems, whether intensive or not, appear to be a sustainable alternative to meet the increasing demand both in terms of quantity and quality. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Abdallah H.R.,Camel and range Research Center | Faye B.,Camel and range Research Center | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

In order to identify homogeneous groups of camels according to their conformation, 212 camels (155 females and 57 males) from 9 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and belonging to 12 different camel breed or types were measured. The body measurements included the length of the head, of the neck, of the udder and of the teat, the height at the withers, and the circumference of the neck, of the thigh and at girth. The 12 breeds were compared according to their mean body measurements and the groups with similar conformation were identified by Automatic Hierarchical Classification on Ward distance. Finally, 4 types of female camel conformation were identified: small size breed from mountains and Red Sea coast, big size camel from desert areas, and 2 breeds, Zargeh with small size but with wide chest and neck, and Asail (racing camel) with very thin neck and leg and poorly developed udder. Six groups of males are identified also but with a different distribution. This classification is close to the typology based on the ecosystem distribution of camel breeds in Saudi Arabia.


Athamna O.M.,Camel and range Research Center | Bengoumi M.,FAO Sub Regional Office 43 | Faye B.,Camel and range Research Center | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

In order to understand the changes in copper and selenium status in camel dam and calf around the calving period, blood samples were collected in 26 she-camel before delivery and after as well as their calves after birth. The mean values for the mother and their newborn were respectively 70.3 ± 19.8 and 58.6 ± 13.9 μg/100 ml for copper, 5.3 ± 3.7 and 4.6 ± 1.7 μg/100 ml for selenium. No change was observed for copper, but selenium increased after parturition in 81% of the case. The selenium status of camel calf was correlated with those of its mother, but not the copper. As the whole the correlation between selenium and copper was significantly positive. The selenium status was improved in camel receiving diet enriched with barley. The maternal transfer to milk has to be investigated. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Musaad,Camel and range Research Center | Faye B.,Camel and range Research Center | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Al-Mutairi S.E.,Camel and range Research Center
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Weekly milk samples from ten lactating she camels (Camelus dromedarius) were analyzed regularly for 11 months after parturition. The main values for all samples were 2.54 ± 0.72g/100g fat matter, 3.07 ± 0.30g/100g protein, 4.21 ± 0.37g/100g lactose and 0.76 ± 0.10g/100g ash. Fat content decreased from 3.41% at the first week to 2.29% at 36th week post-partum with rising at the end to 2.95% while protein decreased from 3.44% at week 1 to 2.79% at the end of lactation, and lactose from 4.48% to 3.90%. Ash increased from 0.72% to 0.82% then decreased down to 0.71%. Regarding seasonal variation, maximum level of fat was observed in January (3.46%) and minimum at summer time (2.29% in July). Protein content was maximum in February (3.32%) and minimum in October (2.76%). For lactose, the maximum mean value was 4.38% in February and the minimum in September (3.83%). The ash content was quite variable in January then stable all over the year. All components were highly positively correlated, except between fat and ash content which was not significant. No significant effect of parity, gestation length, calf body weight at birth or adult weight on all milk content. The average total milk production was 1207 L for 11 months range between 875 and 1616 L. The correlation between milk production and milk components are significantly negative.


Abdallah H.R.,Camel and range Research Center | Faye B.,Camel and range Research Center | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

A field survey involving 218 camel farmers from the northern, eastern and central part of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was implemented in order to collect data on the status of the owner, herd composition and characteristics, feeding practices, moving strategies and disease prevention practices. The method used was Ascending Hierarchical Clustering, a well-adapted technique in case of exploratory approach. After automatic classification analysis of four groups of variables describing the farmer, its herd, some of its practices and the disease prevention practices, a final analysis regarding the clusters of these four items, allowed to identify 4 global types of farming systems with 2 sub-types in each main type. The explaining factors allowed distinguishing camel farms linked to the desert life in opposition to urban people having multi-activity. However, the integration to market could be variable whatever the opposition desert/city. A part of the people living in desert could improve their management and some of the urban owners have camel mainly for social aspect.


Musaad A.,Camel and Range Research Center | Faye B.,Camel and Range Research Center | Faye B.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Nikhela A.A.,University of Khartoum
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2013

Weekly milk records of 47 she-camels in a multibreed dairy camel herd were collected for over a period of 5 years. A total of 72 lactation curves were defined, and relationships with parity, calving season, lactation length, milk production level, following lactations, and dam weight were analyzed. Overall mean values were milk yield up to 12 months, 1,970 ± 790 l; lactation length, 12. 5 months; persistency, 94. 7 %; weekly peak yield, 50. 7 l; monthly peak yield, 220 ± 90 l; and the number of weeks to reach peak yield, 28. The highest productivity was recorded in summer with a weekly mean of 48. 2 ± 19. 4 l, compared with 34. 1 ± 16. 3 l in winter. The highest average yield recorded was for camels at sixth parity, whereas the highest weekly peak was at eighth parity, and highest persistency at fifth parity. Camels that calved during the cold months (November to February) were most productives, with the highest persistency, peak yield, and longest lactation length. Four types of curves were identified corresponding to different parities and milk yield levels. Based on these data, specific models for camels are proposed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Saleh S.K.,Camel and range Research Center | Faye B.,Camel and range Research Center
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2011

A total of 120 quarter milk samples from 30 clinically healthy dromedary camel from Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia were cultured to detect subclinical udder infection. The milk samples were screened by somatic cell count (SCC) and California mastitis test (CMT). Gram-positive cocci were the dominant recovered udder pathogen. The mean value of SCC was 125,000 cells/mm 3. Infected quarter had generally higher mean values for SCC and CMT scores. Both SCC and CMT were of value in predicting the infection status of the udder.

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