Cameca Instruments Inc.

Madison, WI, United States

Cameca Instruments Inc.

Madison, WI, United States
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Vurpillot F.,Jean Monnet University | Gault B.,McMaster University | Geiser B.P.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Larson D.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc.
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2013

Atom probe tomography stands out from other materials characterisation techniques mostly due to its capacity to map individual atoms in three-dimensions with high spatial resolution. The methods used to transform raw detector data into a three-dimensional reconstruction have, comparatively to other aspects of the technique, evolved relatively little since their inception more than 15 years ago. However, due to the importance of the fidelity of the data, this topic is currently attracting a lot of interest within the atom probe community. In this review we cover: (1) the main aspects of the image projection, (2) the methods used to build tomographic reconstructions, (3) the intrinsic limitations of these methods, and (4) future potential directions to improve the integrity of atom probe tomograms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Marquis E.A.,University of Oxford | Yahya N.A.,University of Oxford | Larson D.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Miller M.K.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Todd R.I.,University of Oxford
Materials Today | Year: 2010

The ability to probe the three-dimensional atomic structure of materials is an essential tool for material design and failure analysis. Atom-probe tomography has proven very powerful to analyze the detailed structure and chemistry of metallic alloys and semiconductor structures while ceramic materials have remained outside its standard purview. In the current work, we demonstrate that bulk alumina can be quantitatively analyzed and microstructural features observed. The analysis of grain boundary carbon segregation - barely achievable by electron microscopy - opens the possibility of understanding the mechanistic effects of dopants on mechanical properties, fracture and wear properties of bulk oxides. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Marquis E.A.,University of Oxford | Geiser B.P.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Prosa T.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Larson D.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc.
Journal of Microscopy | Year: 2011

Atom-probe tomography analysis of complex multilayer structures is a promising avenue for studying interfacial properties. However, significant artefacts in the three-dimensional reconstructed data arise due to the field evaporation process. To clarify the origin and impact of these artefacts for a FeCoB/FeCo/MgO/FeCo/IrMn multilayer, tip shapes were observed by transmission electron microscopy and compared to those obtained by finite difference modelling of electric fields and evaporation processes. It was found that the emitter shape is not spherical and its surface morphology evolves during successive evaporation of the different layers. This evolving morphology contributes to the artefacts generally observed in the reconstructed atom-probe data for multilayer structures because algorithms for three-dimensional reconstruction are based on the assumption that the shape of the emitter during field evaporation is spherical. Some proposed improvements to data reconstruction are proposed. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

Larson D.J.,University of Oxford | Larson D.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Prosa T.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Geiser B.P.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Egelhoff W.F.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2011

The accuracy and precision of thin-film interfacial mixing as measured with atom probe tomography (APT) are assessed by considering experimental and simulated field-evaporation of a Co/Cu/Co multilayer structure. Reconstructions were performed using constant shank angle and Z-scale reordering algorithms. Reconstruction of simulated data (zero intermixing) results in a 10-90% intermixing width of ~0.2 nm while experiential intermixing (measured from multiple runs) was 0.47 ± 0.19 and 0.49 ± 0.10 nm for Co-on-Cu and Cu-on-Co interfaces, respectively. The experimental data were collected in analysis orientations both parallel and anti-parallel to film growth direction and the impact of this on the interfacial mixing measurements is discussed. It is proposed that the resolution of such APT measurements is limited by the combination of specimen shape and reconstruction algorithms rather than by an inherent instrumentation limit. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Miller M.K.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Kelly T.F.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Rajan K.,Iowa State University | Ringer S.P.,University of Sydney
Materials Today | Year: 2012

The dream of the microscopy and materials science communities is to see, identify, accurately locate, and determine the fundamental physical properties of every atom in a specimen. With this knowledge together with modern computer models and simulations, a full understanding of the properties of a material can be determined. This fundamental knowledge leads to the design and development of more advanced materials for solving the needs of society. The technique of atom probe tomography is the closest to fulfilling this dream but is still significantly short of the goal. The future of atom probe tomography, and the prospects for achieving this ultimate goal are outlined. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kelly T.F.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Larson D.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc.
Annual Review of Materials Research | Year: 2012

In the world of tomographic imaging, atom probe tomography (APT) occupies the high-spatial-resolution end of the spectrum. It is highly complementary to electron tomography and is applicable to a wide range of materials. The current state of APT is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on applications and data analysis as they apply to many fields of research and development including metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and organic materials. We also provide a brief review of the history and the instrumentation associated with APT and an assessment of the existing challenges in the field. © Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Kelly T.F.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Vella A.,CNRS Material Physics Group | Bunton J.H.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Houard J.,CNRS Material Physics Group | And 5 more authors.
Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science | Year: 2014

The processes by which field evaporation in an atom probe is momentarily stimulated by impingement of a laser beam on a specimen are considered. For metals, the dominant and perhaps only sensible mechanism is energy absorption leading to thermal pulsing, which has been well established. The energy of a laser beam is absorbed in a thin optical skin depth on the surface of the specimen. For materials with a band gap such as semiconductors and dielectrics, it is found that energy absorption in a thin surface layer dominates the process as well and leads to similar thermal pulsing. The relative amount of surface absorption versus volume absorption can strongly influence the heat flow and therefore the mass spectrum of the specimen. Thus it appears for very different reasons that all materials behave similarly in response to laser pulsing in atom probe tomography. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kelly T.F.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Larson D.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc.
MRS Bulletin | Year: 2012

There has been explosive growth in the performance and consequential adoption of atom probe tomography in the past decade, which was fueled by the development of the commercial local-electrode atom probe (LEAP) and technologies for specimen preparation. The LEAP introduced to atom probes orders-of-magnitude increases in data collection rates and field of view while improving mass resolution and greatly improving ease of use. These developments constitute the second revolution in the field since the invention of the atom probe in 1967 and atom probe tomography in 1973: the invention of the three-dimensional atom probe was the first revolution. This article seeks to put this second revolution into historical perspective by recounting the essential developments that led to this point. In particular, the role of Erwin Müller, the inventor of the atom probe and related instruments, is highlighted. From the invention of the field emission electron microscope to the field ion microscope to the atom probe and beyond, he created a field of microscopy that is thriving today. Next, the state of the art in atom probe instrumentation is illustrated with a current application. Finally, a brief look toward future developments is provided, which may include superconducting detectors and integration of atom probes with transmission electron microscopes. © 2012 Materials Research Society.

Larson D.J.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Gault B.,University of Oxford | Geiser B.P.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | De Geuser F.,Grenoble Institute of Technology | Vurpillot F.,CNRS Material Physics Group
Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science | Year: 2013

In this review we present an overview of the current atom probe tomography spatial data reconstruction paradigm, and explore some potential routes to improve the current methodology in order to yield a more accurate representation of nanoscale microstructure. Many of these potential improvement methods are directly tied to extensive application of advanced numerical methods, which are also very briefly reviewed. We have described effects resulting from the application of the standard model and then introduced several potential improvements, first in the far field, and, second, in the near field. The issues encountered in both cases are quite different but ultimately they combine to determine the spatial resolution of the technique. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kelly T.F.,Cameca Instruments Inc. | Miller M.K.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | Rajan K.,Iowa State University | Ringer S.P.,University of Sydney
Microscopy and Microanalysis | Year: 2013

Atomic-scale tomography (AST) is defined and its place in microscopy is considered. Arguments are made that AST, as defined, would be the ultimate microscopy. The available pathways for achieving AST are examined and we conclude that atom probe tomography (APT) may be a viable basis for AST on its own and that APT in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy is a likely path as well. Some possible configurations of instrumentation for achieving AST are described. The concept of metaimages is introduced where data from multiple techniques are melded to create synergies in a multidimensional data structure. When coupled with integrated computational materials engineering, structure-properties microscopy is envisioned. The implications of AST for science and technology are explored. Copyright © Microscopy Society of America 2013 Â.

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