Cambustion Ltd.

Cambridge, United Kingdom

Cambustion Ltd.

Cambridge, United Kingdom
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Wiseguyreports.Com Adds “Automotive Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Systems -Market Demand, Growth, Opportunities and analysis of Top Key Player Forecast to 2022” To Its Research Database “According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Automotive Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Systems Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 9.1% during the forecast period”. One of the key factors driving the market is raising usage of EGR system that helps in eliminating gas emissions. However, more acceptance of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) compared to EGR system is the factor restraining the market growth. Combination of EGR and SCR in upcoming diesel engines is one of the major trends observed in the automotive exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems market. Diesel application segment held the largest share in the EGR system market. Asia Pacific region is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period owing to the stringent environmental policies that decrease emission levels which in turn will boost the exercise of exhaust gas recirculation systems. Some of the key players in Automotive Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Systems Market include Airtex Vehicle Electronics, Automotive LLP, BorgWarner Inc., Cambustion Ltd., Delphi ANSYS Inc., DENSO Europe B.V, Eberspächer Climate Control Systems GmbH & Co. KG, ElringKlinger AG, Friedrich Boysen GmbH & Co. KG, IAV GmbH, MAHLE GmbH and Wells Vehicle Electronics. Regions Covered: • North America o US o Canada o Mexico • • Europe o Germany o France o Italy o UK o Spain o Rest of Europe • Asia Pacific o Japan o China o India o Australia o New Zealand o Rest of Asia Pacific • Rest of the World o Middle East o Brazil o Argentina o South Africa o Egypt What our report offers: - Market share assessments for the regional and country level segments - Market share analysis of the top industry players - Strategic recommendations for the new entrants - Market forecasts for a minimum of 7 years of all the mentioned segments, sub segments and the regional markets - Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges, Investment Opportunities, and recommendations) - Strategic recommendations in key business segments based on the market estimations - Competitive landscaping mapping the key common trends - Company profiling with detailed strategies, financials, and recent developments - Supply chain trends mapping the latest technological advancements For more information, please visit

Hands T.,Cambustion Ltd | Li Q.,Cambustion China Office
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

The maximum soot load capacity for ceramic Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) is sometimes limited by a thermal crack failure mechanism associated with high temperature gradients which can occur during regeneration of highly loaded parts-particularly at low exhaust flow rates. The filter material and construction can be optimised for resistance to thermal cracking, however, the precise conditions which give rise to thermal failure of DPFs can be difficult to establish accurately and repeatably. For instance, thermal failure of DPFs may occur at the onset of the heating due to the exotherm of trapped soot, or during cooling (for instance at the fuel cut during deceleration or start of idle). The time of occurrence of thermal failure can help to establish the worst conditions for filters. Sectioning parts post-test is often conducted to establish the nature and location of any damage. However non-destructive testing allows for the possibility of progressive testing of single parts-allowing determination of the 'Soot Mass Limit'. Post-test scanning techniques have been demonstrated (e.g. X-Ray/CT scanning). These allow non-destructive testing, but are generally expensive, and require the DPF to be removed from the can. This paper describes important considerations for application of two existing post-test evaluations as follows. (1) Radial and axial ultrasound 'Time-of-flight' measurement. (2) Internal imaging of the DPF with a small borescope. Also presented are two novel non-destructive techniques for assessing damage to DPFs as follows. (1) An in situ technique capable of measuring filter vibration events during DPF operation which may be associated with thermal crack damage. A surface microphone coupled directly to the filter substrate through a hole in the can and intumescent matting measures brick vibration, while a background detector measures exhaust pipe and canning vibration events in order to discriminate metallic thermal expansion. Vibration and internal thermocouple data is presented from exothermic regenerations for several different filters loaded with soot on a commercial Diesel Particulate Generator with standard Diesel fuel and fuel treated with a catalytic additive. The extension of the technique to testing on a vehicle is demonstrated. (2) A relatively simple, post-test evaluation which involves reverse aspiration of DPF test parts with a cold Diesel soot aerosol generated with compressed air. The technique can locate DPF cells where the soot aerosol is not filtered though the substrate between the inlet and outlet channels. The deposition of soot on the substrate is shown to be an indicator of internal damage and, together with simple optical microscopy, can help to identify failure mechanisms. The paper presents examples of the above techniques to examine thermal damage to Silicon Carbide and Aluminium Titanate DPFs which have been subject to 'worst case' regenerations. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Johnson T.J.,University of Alberta | Symonds J.P.R.,Cambustion Ltd. | Olfert J.S.,University of Alberta
Aerosol Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Mass-mobility measurements using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) and differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) are demonstrated. The CPMA, which classifies an aerosol by massto- charge ratio, is used upstream of aDMS,whichmeasures the mobility size distribution of the mass-classified particles in real-time. This system allows formass-mobilitymeasurements to bemade on transient sources at one particle mass or an entire effective density distribution for steady state sources in minutes. Since the CPMA classifies particles by mass-to-charge ratio and multiply charged particles are present, particles of several different masses will be measured by the DMS. Therefore, a correction scheme is required to make accurate measurements. To validate this measurement scheme, two different CPMA-DMS systems were used to measure the known density of di(2ethylhexyl) sebacate (DEHS). The first system consisted of a CPMA and standard DMS500 (Cambustion). This system measured an average effective density of 1027 kg/m3 or within 12.6% of the accepted value with an estimated uncertainty of 30.1% (with 95% confidence). The second system consisted of a CPMA and modified DMS. The modified DMS was a DMS500 with the corona charger disabled and sample and sheath flow rates lowered, decreasing the uncertainty in the mobility measurement. This system measured an average effective density of 964 kg/m3 or within 5.7% of the accepted value with an uncertainty of 9.5-10.4% depending on particle mobility size. Finally, it was determined that multiple-charge correction and size calibration were required, with each correction causing a maximum change in measured effective density greater than 10%. Copyright © American Association for Aerosol Research.

Peckham M.S.,Cambustion Ltd | Finch A.,Cambustion Ltd | Campbell B.,Cambustion Ltd
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2011

A study has been conducted to measure the transient HC, NOx, CO, CO2 and particulate emissions from a modern 1.6-liter, Euro IV-stage turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. The tests were conducted using ultra-fast-response analyzers with millisecond response times so that the real-time effects of the individual combustion events and the ECU's start strategy could be studied. The results show that through the use of an aggressive cold start calibration strategy, the catalyst is very efficient after light-off at about 30s. However, during this same period, there are signs of partial misfires and rich AFR excursions, both of which contribute to the overall tailpipe emissions. The data from the fast-response analyzers allowed clear discrimination between rich events and partial misfires and would allow appropriate calibration actions to be taken. NOx conversion was seen to be highly transient, with very big changes in tailpipe NOx emissions occurring corresponding to the fuelling control system AFR switching frequency. Under lean AFR bias conditions, particularly after a lean AFR disturbance, significant NOx breakthrough was seen. ECU optimization using fast-response analyzers could further improve this vehicle's emissions calibration. © 2011 SAE International.

Cong S.,Loughborough University | McTaggart-Cowan G.P.,Loughborough University | Garner C.P.,Loughborough University | Wahab E.,Ford Motor Company | Peckham M.,Cambustion Ltd.
Combustion Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The work presented in this article investigates the three distinct phases of low temperature diesel combustion (LTC). Diesel LTC followed a cool flame-negative temperature coefficient (NTC)-high temperature thermal reaction (main combustion) process. The in-cylinder parameters, such as the charge temperature, pressure, and composition, had noticeable influences on these combustion stages. The NTC was strongly temperature-dependent, with higher temperatures inducing both an earlier onset of NTC and a more rapid transition from NTC to the main combustion process. An increase in the intake charge temperature led to an earlier occurrence of NTC and a reduction in the heat released during the cool flame regime. A higher fuel injection pressure improved fuel mixing and enhanced the low temperature (pre-combustion) reactions, which in turn led to an earlier appearance of the cool flame regime and more heat release during this phase. This increased the charge temperature and led to earlier onset of the NTCregime.Ahigher exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate reduced the intake charge oxygen concentration and limited the low temperature reaction rates. This reduced the heat release rate during cool flame reaction phase, leading to a slower increase in charge temperature and a longer duration of the NTC regime. This increased the ignition delay for the main combustion event. The injection timing showed a less significant influence on the cool flame reaction rates and NTC phase compared to the other parameters. However, it had a significant influence on the main combustion heat release process in terms of phasing and peak heat release rate. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

McTaggart-Cowan G.P.,Loughborough University | Cong S.,Loughborough University | Garner C.P.,Loughborough University | Wahab E.,Ford Motor Company | Peckham M.,Cambustion Ltd.
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2012

This work elucidated which engine operating parameters have the greatest influence on Low temperature diesel combustion (LTC) and emissions. Key parameters were selected and evaluated at low and intermediate speed and load conditions using fractional factorial and Taguchi orthogonal experimental designs. The variations investigated were: about ± 5% in EGR rate, fuel injection quantity and engine speed respectively; and ± 10°C in intake charge temperature. The half-fractional factorial results showed that the interactions among these parameters were negligible for a specific load/speed point. The Taguchi orthogonal method could be used as an efficient DoE tool for studying the multi-parameter small-scale transients' that a diesel engine would be likely to encounter when operating in LTC modes. LTC showed the most significant sensitivity to EGR rate variations, where an increase from 60% to 63% in EGR rate doubled THC and CO emissions and reduced combustion stability. LTC was also sensitive to the fuel injection quantity with an increase in injected mass lowering the overall oxygen-fuel ratio and thereby increasing THC and CO emissions. These two parameters influenced the oxygen concentration in the intake charge; which was identified to be a decisive parameter for the LTC combustion and emissions. Intake charge temperature affected the total charge quantity trapped in the cylinder and showed noticeable influence on CO emissions for the low speed intermediate load condition. Variations in engine speed showed a negligible influence on the LTC combustion processes and emissions. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Sarangi A.K.,Loughborough University | Garner C.P.,Loughborough University | McTaggart-Cowan G.P.,Loughborough University | Davy M.H.,Loughborough University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Engine Research | Year: 2013

Diesel engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen and smoke can be reduced simultaneously through the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation to achieve low-temperature combustion. However, single fuel injection per cycle diesel lowtemperature combustion is also characterized by high fuel consumption and high total unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions. This work focuses on investigating the potential of a split (50/50) main fuel-injection strategy to reduce smoke, total unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions at exhaust gas recirculation levels lower than those required to achieve single-injection diesel low-temperature combustion at a medium-load, medium-speed operating condition. Experiments were performed on a 0.51 l single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection diesel engine running at 1500 r/min at an operating condition corresponding to a gross indicated mean effective pressure of 500 kPa. At this load, exhaust gas recirculation levels of 62% are needed to realize near-zero nitrogen oxide and smoke emissions, but this leads to an unacceptable reduction in thermal efficiency as well as high total unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions. This work compares the effects of split fuel injections at an exhaust gas recirculation level of 52% by volume to those from single injections at exhaust gas recirculation levels of 52% and 62%. The results demonstrate that the combined effects of exhaust gas recirculation rate and split injections can achieve near-zero nitrogen oxide with good thermal efficiency and total unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions much lower than at 62% exhaust gas recirculation. Single injection at this point results in excessive smoke, which can be reduced by over 75% through the split-injection strategy. These results are particularly relevant as they demonstrate very low nitrogen oxide emissions from an engine operation with acceptable thermal efficiency and at practical exhaust gas recirculation levels. © IMechE 2013.

Collings N.,University of Cambridge | Rongchai K.,University of Cambridge | Symonds J.P.R.,Cambustion Ltd.
Journal of Aerosol Science | Year: 2014

A High Temperature Condensation Particle Counter (HT-CPC) is described that operates at an elevated temperature of up to ca. 300. °C such that volatile particles from typical combustion sources are not counted. The HT-CPC is functionally identical to a conventional CPC, the main challenge being to find suitable non-hazardous working fluids, with good stability, and an appropriate vapour pressure. Some key design features are described, and results of modelling which predict the HT-CPC counting efficiency. Experimental results are presented for several candidate fluids when the HT-CPC was challenged with ambient, NaCl and diesel soot particles, and the results show good agreement with modelled predictions, and confirm that counting of particles of diameters down to at least 10. nm was achievable. Possible applications are presented, including measurement of particles from a diesel car engine and comparison with a near PMP system. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Peckham M.S.,Cambustion Ltd | Campbell B.W.,Cambustion Ltd | Finch A.,Cambustion Ltd
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering | Year: 2011

Fast-response nitrogen oxide (NO x) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) analysers have been used to study the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) delay within a modern diesel passenger car. These analysers have response times of the order of a few milliseconds, allowing the CO 2 analyser to be used to study the effects of the EGR transit delay during engine transients and the effect of sudden EGR valve actuation during a drive cycle. The effect of the EGR system delays on the NO x emissions was measured with the fast-response NO x analyser. The results indicate that the EGR delay contributes to the sharp short-duration spikes of NO x. Tests have also been carried out to identify the transient cylinder-to-cylinder EGR distribution by comparing the CO 2 concentrations in the inlet ports, again using the fast-response CO 2 analyser. The results of these tests show a variation between the CO 2 concentrations in the intake ports, suggesting a poor EGR distribution under certain conditions. Measurements have been recorded of the EGR in the intake port runner of just one of the engine's cylinders and have been compared with the exhaust port NO x emissions. This provided some data on a cycle-by-cycle basis including the number of engine cycles required for the burned gas to complete the EGR circuit.

Whitehead J.D.,University of Manchester | Irwin M.,University of Manchester | Irwin M.,Cambustion Ltd. | Allan J.D.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

Water uptake by aerosol particles controls their ability to form cloud droplets, and reconciliation between different techniques for examining cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties is important to our understanding of these processes and our ability to measure and predict them. Reconciliation between measurements of sub-saturated and supersaturated aerosol particle water uptake was attempted at a wide range of locations between 2007 and 2013. The agreement in derived number of CCN (NCCN or particle hygroscopicity was mixed across the projects, with some data sets showing poor agreement across all supersaturations and others agreeing within errors for at least some of the supersaturation range. The degree of reconciliation did not seem to depend on the environment in which the measurements were taken. The discrepancies can only be attributable to differences in the chemical behaviour of aerosols and gases in each instrument, leading to under-or overestimated growth factors and/or CCN counts, though poorer reconciliation at lower supersaturations can be attributed to uncertainties in the size distribution at the threshold diameter found at these supersaturations. From a single instrument, the variability in NCCN calculated using particle hygroscopicity or size distribution averaged across a project demonstrates a greater sensitivity to variation in the size distribution than chemical composition in most of the experiments. However, the discrepancies between instruments indicate a strong requirement for reliable quantification of CCN in line with an improved understanding of the physical processes involved in their measurement. Without understanding the reason for discrepancies in the measurements, it is questionable whether quantification of CCN behaviour is meaningful. © 2014 Author(s).

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