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Ferguson-Smith M.A.,Cambridge Resource Center for Comparative Genomics
Genetika | Year: 2010

A striking example of the power of chromosome painting has been the resolution of the male platypus karyotype and the pairing relationships of the chain often sex chromosomes. We have extended our analysis to the nine sex chromosomes of the male echidna. Cross-species painting with platypus shows that the first five chromosomes in the chain are identical in both, but the order of the remainder are different and, in each species, a different autosome replaces one of the five X chromosomes. As the therian X is homologous mainly to platypus autosome 6 and echidna 16, and as SRY is absent in both, the sex determination mechanism in monotremes is currently unknown. Several of the X and Y chromosomes contain genes orthologous to those in the avian Z but the significance of this is also unknown. It seems likely that a novel testis determinant is carried by a Y chromosome common to platypus and echidna. We have searched for candidates for this determinant among the many genes known to be involved in vertebrate sex differentiation. So far fourteen such genes have been mapped, eleven are autosomal in platypus, two map to the differential regions of X chromosomes, and one maps to a pairing segment and is likewise excluded. Search for the platypus testis-determining gene continues, and the extension of comparative mapping between platypus and birds and reptiles may shed light on the ancestral origin of monotreme sex chromosomes.


Ferguson-Smith M.A.,Cambridge Resource Center for Comparative Genomics | Rens W.,Cambridge Resource Center for Comparative Genomics
Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2010

A striking example of the power of chromosome painting has been the resolution of the male platypus karyotype and the pairing relationships of the chain of ten sex chromosomes. We have extended our analysis to the nine sex chromosomes of the male echidna. Cross-species painting with platypus shows that the first five chromosomes in the chain are identical in both, but the order of the remainder are different and, in each species, a different autosome replaces one of the five X chromosomes. As the therian X is homologous mainly to platypus autosome 6 and echidna 16, and as SRY is absent in both, the sex determination mechanism in monotremes is currently unknown. Several of the X and Y chromosomes contain genes orthologous to those in the avian Z but the significance of this is also unknown. It seems likely that a novel testis determinant is carried by a Y chromosome common to platypus and echidna. We have searched for candidates for this determinant among the many genes known to be involved in vertebrate sex differentiation. So far fourteen such genes have been mapped, eleven are autosomal in platypus, two map to the differential regions of X chromosomes, and one maps to a pairing segment and is likewise excluded. Search for the platypus testis-determining gene continues, and the extension of comparative mapping between platypus and birds and reptiles may shed light on the ancestral origin of monotreme sex chromosomes. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Kretschmer R.,Federal University of Pampa | Gunski R.J.,Federal University of Pampa | Del Valle Garnero A.,Federal University of Pampa | De Oliveira Furo I.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Turdus rufiventris and Turdus albicollis, two songbirds belonging to the family Turdidae (Aves, Passeriformes) were studied by C-banding, 18S rDNA, as well as the use of whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus (GGA) and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL). They showed very similar karyotypes, with 2n = 78 and the same pattern of distribution of heterochromatic blocks and hybridization patterns. However, the analysis of 18/28S rDNA has shown differences in the number of NOR-bearing chromosomes and ribosomal clusters. The hybridization pattern of GGA macrochromosomes was similar to the one found in songbirds studied by Fluorescent in situ hybridization, with fission of GGA 1 and GGA 4 chromosomes. In contrast, LAL chromosome paintings revealed a complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) on chromosome 2, which corresponds to GGA1q. The first inversion changed the chromosomal morphology and the second and third inversions changed the order of chromosome segments. Karyotype analysis in Turdus revealed that this genus has derived characteristics in relation to the putative avian ancestral karyotype, highlighting the importance of using new tools for analysis of chromosomal evolution in birds, such as the probes derived from L. albicollis, which make it possible to identify intrachromosomal rearrangements not visible with the use of GGA chromosome painting solely. © 2014 Kretschmer et al.


de Oliveira E.C.,Instituto Evandro Chagas | de Oliveira E.C.,Federal University of Para | de Oliveira E.C.,Cambridge Resource Center for Comparative Genomics | Tagliarini M.M.,Federal University of Para | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Buteoninae (Falconiformes, Accipitridae) consist of the widely distributed genus Buteo, and several closely related species in a group called "sub-buteonine hawks", such as Buteogallus, Parabuteo, Asturina, Leucopternis and Busarellus, with unsolved phylogenetic relationships. Diploid number ranges between 2n = 66 and 2n = 68. Only one species, L. albicollis had its karyotype analyzed by molecular cytogenetics. The aim of this study was to present chromosomal analysis of three species of Buteoninae: Rupornis magnirostris, Asturina nitida and Buteogallus meridionallis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments with telomeric and rDNA probes, as well as whole chromosome probes derived from Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis. The three species analyzed herein showed similar karyotypes, with 2n = 68. Telomeric probes showed some interstitial telomeric sequences, which could be resulted by fusion processes occurred in the chromosomal evolution of the group, including the one found in the tassociation GGA1p/GGA6. In fact, this association was observed in all the three species analyzed in this paper, and also in L. albicollis, suggesting that it represents a cytogenetic signature which reinforces the monophyly of Neotropical buteoninae species. © 2013 de Oliveira et al.


Escriba M.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Escriba M.C.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Greciano P.G.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Greciano P.G.,University of Chicago | And 8 more authors.
Chromosoma | Year: 2011

Sciara coprophila (Diptera, Nematocera) constitutes a classic model to analyze unusual chromosome behavior such as the somatic elimination of paternal X chromosomes, the elimination of the whole paternal, plus non-disjunction of the maternal X chromosome at male meiosis. The molecular organization of the heterochromatin in S. coprophila is mostly unknown except for the ribosomal DNA located in the X chromosome pericentromeric heterochromatin. The characterization of the centromeric regions, thus, is an essential and required step for the establishment of S. coprophila as a model system to study fundamental mechanisms of chromosome segregation. To accomplish such a study, heterochromatic sections of the X chromosome centromeric region from salivary glands polytene chromosomes were microdissected and microcloned. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two tandem repeated DNA sequences from the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome, a pericentromeric RTE element and an AT-rich centromeric satellite. These sequences will be important tools for the cloning of S. coprophila centromeric heterochromatin using libraries of large genomic clones. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

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