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Hackett A.,Genetics of Learning Disability Service | Tarpey P.S.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Licata A.,JC Self Research Institute | Cox J.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | And 19 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Mutations of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) gene have recently been associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) with microcephaly, optic atrophy and brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia, as well as with an X-linked syndrome having some FG-like features. Our group has recently identified four male probands from 358 probable XLMR families with missense mutations (p.Y268H, p.P396S, p.D710G and p.W919R) in the CASK gene. Congenital nystagmus, a rare and striking feature, was present in two of these families. We screened a further 45 probands with either nystagmus or microcephaly and mental retardation (MR), and identified two further mutations, a missense mutation (p.Y728C) and a splice mutation (c.2521-2A > T) in two small families with nystagmus and MR. Detailed clinical examinations of all six families, including an ophthalmological review in four families, were undertaken to further characterise the phenotype. We report on the clinical features of 24 individuals, mostly male, from six families with CASK mutations. The phenotype was variable, ranging from non-syndromic mild MR to severe MR associated with microcephaly and dysmorphic facial features. Carrier females were variably affected. Congenital nystagmus was found in members of four of the families. Our findings reinforce the CASK gene as a relatively frequent cause of XLMR in females and males. We further define the phenotypic spectrum and demonstrate that affected males with missense mutations or in-frame deletions in CASK are frequently associated with congenital nystagmus and XLMR, a striking feature not previously reported. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Shoubridge C.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Shoubridge C.,University of Adelaide | Tarpey P.S.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Abidi F.,Jc Self Research Institute | And 19 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

The first family identified as having a nonsyndromic intellectual disability was mapped in 1988. Here we show that a mutation of IQSEC2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of small GTPases, caused this disorder. In addition to MRX1, IQSEC2 mutations were identified in three other families with X-linked intellectual disability. This discovery was made possible by systematic and unbiased X chromosome exome resequencing. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Wei B.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Han L.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Abbink T.E.M.,Addenbrookes Hospital | Abbink T.E.M.,VU University Amsterdam | And 12 more authors.
Retrovirology | Year: 2013

Background: Immune cell adaptor protein ADAP (adhesion and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein) mediates aspects of T-cell adhesion and proliferation. Despite this, a connection between ADAP and infection by the HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-1) has not been explored.Results: In this paper, we show for the first time that ADAP and its binding to SLP-76 (SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa) regulate HIV-1 infection via two distinct mechanisms and co-receptors. siRNA down-regulation of ADAP, or expression of a mutant that is defective in associating to its binding partner SLP-76 (termed M12), inhibited the propagation of HIV-1 in T-cell lines and primary human T-cells. In one step, ADAP and its binding to SLP-76 were needed for the activation of NF-κB and its transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) in cooperation with ligation of co-receptor CD28, but not LFA-1. In a second step, the ADAP-SLP-76 module cooperated with LFA-1 to regulate conjugate formation between T-cells and dendritic cells or other T-cells as well as the development of the virological synapse (VS) and viral spread between immune cells.Conclusions: These findings indicate that ADAP regulates two steps of HIV-1 infection cooperatively with two distinct receptors, and as such, serves as a new potential target in the blockade of HIV-1 infection. © 2013 Wei et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Li C.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Li W.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Xiao J.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Xiao J.,Shanghai Normal University | And 9 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

PD-1 negatively regulates CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) cytotoxicity and anti-tumor immunity. However, it is not fully understood how PD-1 expression on CD8+ CTL is regulated during anti-tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we have identified that the ADAP-SKAP55 signaling module reduced CD8+ CTL cytotoxicity and enhanced PD-1 expression in a Fyn-, Ca2+-, and NFATc1-dependent manner. In DC vaccine-based tumor prevention and therapeutic models, knockout of SKAP55 or ADAP showed a heightened protection from tumor formation or metastases in mice and reduced PD-1 expression in CD8+ effector cells. Interestingly, CTLA-4 levels and the percentages of tumor infiltrating CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs remained unchanged. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of SKAP55-deficient or ADAP-deficient CD8+ CTLs significantly blocked tumor growth and increased anti-tumor immunity. Pretreatment of wild-type CD8+ CTLs with the NFATc1 inhibitor CsA could also downregulate PD-1 expression and enhance anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy. Together, we propose that targeting the unrecognized ADAP-SKAP55-NFATc1-PD-1 pathway might increase efficacy of anti-tumor immunotherapy. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.


PubMed | CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Cambridge Institute of Medical Research, CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology, Shanghai Normal University and CAS Institut Pasteur of Shanghai
Type: Journal Article | Journal: EMBO molecular medicine | Year: 2015

PD-1 negatively regulates CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) cytotoxicity and anti-tumor immunity. However, it is not fully understood how PD-1 expression on CD8(+) CTL is regulated during anti-tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we have identified that the ADAP-SKAP55 signaling module reduced CD8(+) CTL cytotoxicity and enhanced PD-1 expression in a Fyn-, Ca(2+)-, and NFATc1-dependent manner. In DC vaccine-based tumor prevention and therapeutic models, knockout of SKAP55 or ADAP showed a heightened protection from tumor formation or metastases in mice and reduced PD-1 expression in CD8(+) effector cells. Interestingly, CTLA-4 levels and the percentages of tumor infiltrating CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs remained unchanged. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of SKAP55-deficient or ADAP-deficient CD8(+) CTLs significantly blocked tumor growth and increased anti-tumor immunity. Pretreatment of wild-type CD8(+) CTLs with the NFATc1 inhibitor CsA could also downregulate PD-1 expression and enhance anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy. Together, we propose that targeting the unrecognized ADAP-SKAP55-NFATc1-PD-1 pathway might increase efficacy of anti-tumor immunotherapy.


Ahrabi A.K.,Catholic University of Louvain | Ahrabi A.K.,Harvard University | Jouret F.,Catholic University of Louvain | Marbaix E.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 6 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2010

Background. The homozygous deletion of Pkd1 in the mouse results in embryonic lethality with renal cysts and hydrops fetalis, but there is no precise data on the segmental origin of cysts and potential changes associated with polyhydramnios.Methods. We used Pkd1-null mice to investigate cystogenesis and analyze the amniotic fluid composition from embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to birth (n = 257 embryos).Results. Polyhydramnios was consistently observed from E13.5 in Pkd1-/- embryos, in absence of placental abnormalities but with a significantly higher excretion of sodium and glucose from E13.5 through E16.5, and increased cyclic adenosine 3'5-monophosphate (cAMP) levels at E14.5 and E15.5. The Pkd1-/- embryos started to die at E13.5, with lethality peaking at E15.5, corresponding to the onset of cystogenesis. The first cysts in Pkd1-/- kidneys emerged at E15.5 in mesenchyme-derived segments at the cortico-medullary junction, with a majority of glomerular cysts and fewer proximal tubule cysts (positive for megalin). The cysts extended to ureteric bud-derived collecting ducts (positive for Dolichos biflorus agglutinin lectin) from E16.5.Conclusions. These studies indicate that Pkd1 deletion is associated with a massive loss of solutes (from E13.5) and increased cAMP levels (E14.5) associated with polyhydramnios. These abnormalities precede renal cysts (E15.5), first derived from glomeruli and proximal tubules and later from the collecting ducts, reflecting the expression pattern of Pkd1 in maturing epithelial cells. © 2009 The Author.


Lim D.,University of Cambridge | Lim D.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | Lu Y.,University of Cambridge | Lu Y.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Immunology Letters | Year: 2016

While the cytoskeletal protein talin binds to the β-chain of LFA-1, the immune cell adaptor SKAP1 (SKAP-55) binds to the α-chain of the same integrin via RapL. Whereas calpain protease cleavage of talin is important for LFA-1 activation, it has been unclear whether SKAP1 can alter the function of talin or its associated adaptor RIAM in T-cells. In this paper, we report that Skap1-/- T-cells showed a reduction in the translocation of talin and RIAM to the contact interface of T-cells with antigenic beads or dendritic cells (DCs) presenting OVA peptide to OT-1 T-cells. In addition, Skap1-/- T-cells show an altered pattern of talin cleavage, while the expression of a cleavage resistant form of talin (L432G) restored the impaired adhesion of OT1 transgenic Skap1-/- T-cells with DCs. SKAP1 therefore can affect the function of talin in T-cells needed for optimal T-cell/DC conjugation. © 2016 The Authors.


Flint S.M.,University of Cambridge | Flint S.M.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | McKinney E.F.,University of Cambridge | McKinney E.F.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2015

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) remain central to our current understanding of the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), and this review considers recent developments in the context of four key questions: are there targets for ANCA beyond myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3); are all ANCA pathogenic; how are ANCAs generated; and how do ANCA cause disease? RECENT FINDINGS: B-cell epitope mapping raises the possibility that only a subset of ANCA may be pathogenic. Anti-lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 autoantibodies have recently emerged as a novel form of ANCA and can be found in anti-MPO and anti-PR3 negative disease. These also provide recent evidence for molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of AAV, but a definitive proof in human AAV remains elusive. Neutrophil extracellular traps may represent an important mechanism by which MPO and PR3 are taken up by dendritic cells for presentation to the adaptive immune system, and the role of the alternative pathway of complement in AAV has recently been emphasized, with therapeutic implications. SUMMARY: Our current understanding of the pathogenesis of AAV not only reinforces the central role of neutrophils but also provides a sound rationale for B-cell and complement-directed therapies. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Lu Y.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | Schneider H.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | Schneider H.,University of Cambridge | Rudd C.E.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | Rudd C.E.,University of Cambridge
Blood | Year: 2012

CTLA-4 inhibits T-cell activation and protects against the development of autoimmunity. We and others previously showed that the coreceptor can induce T-cell motility and shorten dwell times with dendritic cells (DCs). However, it has been unclear whether this property of CTLA-4 affects both conventional T cells (Tconvs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here, we report that CTLA-4 had significantly more potent effects on the motility and contact times of Tconvs than Tregs. This was shown firstly by anti-CTLA-4 reversal of the anti-CD3 stop-signal on FoxP3-negative cells at concentrations that had no effect on FoxP3-positive Tregs. Secondly, the presence of CTLA-4 reduced the contact times of DO11.10 x CD4+CD25- Tconvs, but not DO11.10 x CD4 +CD25+ Tregs, with OVA peptide presenting DCs in lymph nodes. Thirdly, blocking of CTLA-4 with anti-CTLA-4 Fab increased the contact times of Tconvs, but not Tregs with DCs. By contrast, the presence of CD28 in a comparison of Cd28-/- and Cd28+/+ DO11.10 T cells had no detectable effect on the contact times of either Tconvs or Tregs with DCs. Our findings identify for the first time a mechanistic explanation to account for CTLA-4-negative regulation of Tconv cells but not Tregs in immune responses. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.


Sun G.,Imperial College London | Tarasov A.I.,Imperial College London | McGinty J.,Imperial College London | McDonald A.,Imperial College London | And 13 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2010

Aims/hypothesis: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme and a target of glucose-lowering agents, including metformin. However, the precise role or roles of the enzyme in controlling insulin secretion remain uncertain. Methods: The catalytic α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK were ablated selectively in mouse pancreatic beta cells and hypothalamic neurons by breeding Ampkα1 [also known as Prkaa1]-knockout mice, bearing floxed Ampkα2 [also known as Prkaa2] alleles (Ampkα1 -/-,α2 fl/fl,), with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the rat insulin promoter (RIP2). RIP2 was used to express constitutively activated AMPK selectively in beta cells in transgenic mice. Food intake, body weight and urinary catecholamines were measured using metabolic cages. Glucose and insulin tolerance were determined after intraperitoneal injection. Beta cell mass and morphology were analysed by optical projection tomography and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Granule docking, insulin secretion, membrane potential and intracellular free Ca2+ were measured with standard techniques. Results: Trigenic Ampkα1 -/-,α2 fl/fl expressing Cre recombinase and lacking both AMPKα subunits in the beta cell, displayed normal body weight and increased insulin sensitivity, but were profoundly insulin-deficient. Secreted catecholamine levels were unchanged. Total beta cell mass was unaltered, while mean islet and beta cell volume were reduced. AMPK-deficient beta cells displayed normal glucose-induced changes in membrane potential and intracellular free Ca2+, while granule docking and insulin secretion were enhanced. Conversely, βAMPK transgenic mice were glucose-intolerant and displayed defective insulin secretion. Conclusions/interpretation: Inhibition of AMPK activity within the beta cell is necessary, but not sufficient for stimulation of insulin secretion by glucose to occur. AMPK activation in extrapancreatic RIP2.Cre-expressing cells might also influence insulin secretion in vivo. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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