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Cambridge, MA, United States

Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2006

Ground component forces current and future are likely to perform operations in which they must be interdependent with the cultures of other Services, other governmental agencies, multi-national forces, and the populations of countries in which operations are occurring. Joint Task Force (JTF) staff member exposure to other services may be limited; they may not be familiar other Service competencies. Today's war also requires cognitive skills from a warfighter who must deal with social, cultural, and language barriers. The focus of this proposal is on overcoming these barriers through jointness in leadership training. In Phase I, we will conduct front-end analysis to determine the components of shared mental models of JTF staff members' understanding of jointness, cultural differences among the Services, and operational capabilities and environments where these issues are especially important. Based on this analysis, we will develop a computer-mediated training environment that can rapidly enhance the cognitive leadership skills required for ground component officers and non-commissioned officers to be effective in a Joint Task Force. We will deliver example exercises based on shared mental models designed to maximize JTF effectiveness. Performance metrics will also be developed that objectively measure leadership behavior and training progress utilizing the training software.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Office for Chemical and Biological Defense | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 69.92K | Year: 2007

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for predicting the dispersion of chemicals and biological (CB) agents in indoor environments. Unfortunately, techniques to specify CB emissions as input to CFD simulations lack in sophistication. Adequate models are not available for many important CB emission processes. Particle resuspension from surfaces, particularly relevant to CB agents such as Anthrax, will be researched to develop models appropriate for CFD-based dispersion simulations. Phase I research will identify existing information relevant to indoor particle resuspension that will be used to develop source term models (STMs) capable of predicting particle resuspension rates. STM formulations will likely consider physical parameters such as particle size, surface characteristics such as roughness height, flow parameters such as turbulence intensity and shear stress, and particle-surface interactions such as electrostatic forces. Predictions of the STMs will be evaluated against measured particle fluxes available in existing resuspension studies. Preliminary demonstration of STM capabilities will be made through limited CFD simulations, and data gaps will be identified for further testing and evaluation in Phase II research.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 49.68K | Year: 1992

A USER-FRIENDLY SOFTWARE TOOL IS BEING DEVELOPED FOR MODELING THE AIRBORNE CONCENTRATIONS OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS IN LARGE INDOOR SPACES IN WHICH POLLUTANTS ARE NOT UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED. CURRENT INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MODELS HAVE LIMITED ABILITY TO DEAL WITH SUCH HETEROGENEOUS CONDITIONS. IN THIS RESEARCH, SYSTEM DYNAMICS SOFTWARE IS BEING APPLIED TO SIMULATE AIR DISPERSION IN OPEN INDOOR SETTINGS. THE MODELING APPROACH CONSISTS OF DIVIDING THE INDOOR SPACE INTO AN INTERCONNECTED NETWORK OF SUBVOLUMES. ADJACENT SUBVOLUMES ARE ASSUMED TO EXCHANGE POLLUTANTS. IN ADDITION, A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL PROCESSES ARE MODELED THAT INFLUENCE THE CONCENTRATIONS OF POLLUTANTS IN EACH SUBVOLUME, INCLUDING EMISSIONS, LOCAL AIR SUPPLY OR VENTILATION, AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS. MODELING IS PERFORMED IN AN INTERACTIVE GRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT THAT CORRESPONDS TO THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT. MODELING ELEMENTS INCLUDE BOTH SUBVOLUMES AND CONNECTORS THAT REPRESENT THE UNDERLYING MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS, WHICH ARE AUTOMATICALLY SOLVED AS A LINKED SYSTEM OF TIME-DEPENDENT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. THE USEFULNESS OF THE MODELING APPROACH WILL BE DEMONSTRATED BY APPLYING THE ALGORITHMS TO INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SURVEYS IN WHICH EMPIRICAL DATA HAVE BEEN COLLECTED.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 1997

This Phase I proposal is to develop methods to couple a numerical three-dimensional groundwater contaminant fate and transport model with Monte Carlo probabilistic risk assessment methods in order to allow selection of remedial criteria based on reasonable estimates of risk to humans and the environment. The market will be searched for the most effective and available three-dimensional numerical groundwater model. The selected model will be integrated with a flexible, extensible, modular, object-oriented, probabilistic, multi-pathway, multi-chemical risk assessment approach to provide a single model allowing estimation of distributions for risks to receptors, and hence back-claculation of remedial criteria based on thosre risk estimates. The complete model will ensure consistency of the inputs to the component groundwater modeling and the risk assessment models, and will integrate both with a database of toxicology, eco-toxicology, physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics of chemicals of interest to the Air Force. It will also provide a default set of probability distributions for various parameters of importance in the risk assessment. The complete model will incorporate design features to allow extension to a graphical user interface with easy selection of defaults or choices.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.74K | Year: 2005

Air Force personnel maintaining or servicing aircraft can be exposed to hazardous concentrations of air contaminants, even if removed some distance from the emission-generating activities. Traditional industrial hygiene measurements can be costly or impractical, and common air pollutant dispersion models are not designed to estimate contaminant concentrations close to their point of origin. Improved simulation tools would benefit the industrial hygiene field. Seizing this opportunity, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a sophisticated modeling tool now capable of simulating environmental flows, will be applied to predict contaminant concentrations within the vicinity of a release (including distances as close as 2-25 feet that cannot be considered by existing models). Case studies will be developed and validated in conjunction with contaminant measurements collected by the Air Force in the vicinity of aircraft maintenance activities. Phase I research will primarily focus on predicting contaminant dispersion. Conceptual approaches will also be developed to conduct exposure and risk assessment to support decision analysis. Phase II research will implement the methods and frameworks developed in Phase I within user-friendly health and environmental simulation software for use by the Air Force and others tasked with evaluating, assessing, and mitigating chemical exposure in the workplace.

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