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Marey sur Tille, France

Brigaud B.,University of Burgundy | Brigaud B.,Andra Inc | Brigaud B.,University Paris - Sud | Vincent B.,Cambridge Carbonates Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Sedimentary Research | Year: 2010

Examination of petrophysical properties (acoustic velocity, porosity, permeability, and density) and petrographical characteristics (texture, facies composition, and diagenesis) of more than 250 core plugs from the Middle Jurassic carbonates of the eastern Paris Basin provides insights into the parameters controlling acoustic velocities in relatively low-porosity carbonate rocks (Φ < 20%). The pore-type observations reveal distinct acoustic velocities in samples with intergranular macropores and samples with micropores in subhedral micrite, such that velocities in microporous mudstonewackestone (lagoonal) deposits are greater than in macroporous grainstone (shoal) samples, at a given porosity range (1520%). The standard Wyllie and Raymer transforms fit very well with the linear regression between acoustic velocity and porosity from mudstone or lagoonal facies. Marls and fine-grained deposits interpreted as lagoonal facies include statistically significant correlation (r = 0.9) between velocity and porosity. However, the data suggest that the wide scatter in velocityporosity relationship from grainstones are not the result of different sorting, grain size, pore type, dolomite content, or clay content. Instead, early cementation greatly influences acoustic properties during diagenesis, and are interpreted to account for the high variability of velocities over a given porosity range. Specifically, at a given porosity, acoustic velocities in compacted grainstone that did not undergo early cementation are higher than in early-cemented grainstone. Petrographic observations suggest that early cementation limits mechanical compaction, creating a heterogeneous medium from the earliest stages of diagenesis (non-touching grains, preservation of intergranular macropores that are partially to totally filled by later bločky calcite cement). The abundant interfaces between micritized ooids, early cement fringes, and blocky calcites in grainstones may induce significant wave attenuation. As a result, the standard time-average equations fail to predict the effect of diagenetic features such as early cementation on sonic velocity. Conversely, an absence of early cementation favors mechanical compaction, grain-to-grain contact, and suturing. The result is a homogeneous micritized grainsupported network that may facilitate wave propagation. Through demonstration of the key role of early cementation in the explanation of variability in acoustic properties, the results of this study illustrate the complicated factors influencing velocity transforms in carbonates (Wyllie and Raymer), i.e., classical tools for predicting reservoir properties. These insights on the interpretation of Vp and the refinement of velocityporosity transforms in grainstone units may be broadly applicable to enhancing seismic-based exploration in carbonate successions. Copyright © 2010, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology). Source

Vincent B.,Cambridge Carbonates Ltd | Fleury M.,French Institute of Petroleum | Santerre Y.,French Institute of Petroleum | Brigaud B.,University Paris - Sud
Journal of Applied Geophysics | Year: 2011

A set of carbonate outcrop samples, covering a wide range of the sedimentary textures and depositional environments existing on carbonate systems, was studied through an integrated petrographical and petrophysical approach. With the aim of improving the understanding of the NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) signal of carbonates, this work is: 1) providing an atlas for various carbonate reservoir rock-types, 2) providing a workflow for integrating geological and petrophysical data and, 3) documenting common shortfalls in NMR/MICP analyses in carbonates. The petrographical investigation includes thin section and SEM (Secondary Electron Microscope) observations, whereas petrophysical investigation includes porosity (φ), permeability (K), NMR, MICP (Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure), and specific surface area (BET) measurements.On the basis of NMR and MICP data, 4 groups of samples were identified: (1) microporous samples, (2) micro-mesoporous samples, (3) wide multimodal samples, and (4) atypical samples. The microporous samples allow us to define a maximum NMR threshold for microporosity at a T 2 of 200ms.NMR and MICP response of the investigated carbonates are often comparable in terms of modal distribution (microporous, micro-mesoporous and wide multimodal samples). In particular, micritization, a well known but underestimated early diagenetic process, tends to homogenize the NMR signal of primarily different sedimentary facies. A grainstone with heavily micritized grains can display well sorted unimodal NMR and MICP signatures very similar, even identical, to a mudstone-wackestone. Their signatures are comparable to that of a simple sphere packing model.On the contrary, several samples (labeled atypical samples) show a discrepancy between NMR and MICP response. This discrepancy is explained by the fact that MICP can be affected by the physical connectivity of the pore network, in case of disseminated and isolated molds in a micrite matrix for instance. Similarly, NMR can differentiate pore classes but with less resolution. It does not rely on connectivity but can be affected by diffusional pore coupling, i.e. the diffusion of water molecules carrying the magnetization between micropores and macropores. The pore-coupling phenomenon, through its impact on the T 2 distribution, may disturb the permeability calculations from NMR data.For core plug characterization, NMR appears to be a complementary tool to MICP and should be used to complete rock-typing analysis in carbonates. For reservoir rock-typing, the obvious advantage of developing a NMR based approach is the use of NMR logging data providing continuous records of pore size distributions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Carpentier C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Brigaud B.,University Paris - Sud | Blaise T.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Vincent B.,Cambridge Carbonates Ltd | And 10 more authors.
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2014

Several diagenetic models have been proposed for Middle and Upper Jurassic carbonates of the eastern Paris Basin. The paragenetic sequences are compared in both aquifers to propose a diagenetic model for the Middle and Late Jurassic deposits as a whole. Petrographic (optical and cathodoluminescence microscopy), structural (fracture orientations) and geochemical (δ18O, δ13C, REE) studies were conducted to characterize diagenetic cements, with a focus on blocky calcite cements, and their connection with fracturation events. Four generations of blocky calcite (Cal1-Cal4) are identified. Cal1 and Cal2 are widespread in the dominantly grain-supported facies of the Middle Jurassic limestones (about 90% of the cementation), whereas they are limited in the Oxfordian because grain-supported facies are restricted to certain stratigraphic levels. Cal1 and Cal2 blocky spars precipitated during burial in a reducing environment from mixed marine-meteoric waters and/or buffered meteoric waters. The meteoric waters probably entered aquifers during the Late Cimmerian (Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary) and Late Aptian (Early Cretaceous) unconformities. The amount of Cal2 cement is thought to be linked to the intensity of burial pressure dissolution, which in turn was partly controlled by the clay content of the host rocks. Cal3 and Cal4 are associated with telogenetic fracturing phases. The succession of Cal3 and Cal4 calcite relates to the transition towards oxidizing conditions during an opening of the system to meteoric waters at higher water/rock ratios. These meteoric fluids circulated along Pyrenean, Oligocene and Alpine fractures and generated both dissolution and subsequent cementation in Oxfordian vugs in mud-supported facies and in poorly stylolitized grainstones. However, these cements filled only the residual porosity in Middle Jurassic limestones. In addition to fluorine inputs, fracturation also permitted inputs of sulphur possibly due to weathering of Triassic or Purbeckian evaporites or H2S input during Paleogene times. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Brigaud B.,University Paris - Sud | Vincent B.,Cambridge Carbonates Ltd | Durlet C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Deconinck J.-F.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 4 more authors.
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2014

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), stable isotope geochemistry of micro-sampled cores, NMR well-logs and 3D modeling are used to investigate the carbonate permeability-porosity heterogeneity along 230m-thick limestones of the Paris Basin. Despite the global low porosity and permeability of the limestones, two aquifers units with porosity greater than 15% were identified. These two aquifers are very different in terms of pore through radii and NMR signal. The first one (A1: Aquifer 1) is a 7m-thick mudstone unit, dominated by extended microporosity with pore throat radii of 0.25μm to 0.3μm. The second one (A2: Aquifer 2) is a 15m-thick oolitic grainstone units showing macropores reaching 100μm and pore throat radii of 32μm. From core descriptions and wireline logs on 26 wells, a 3D static geological model is build. The fine tuning of permeability calculations from NMR logs realized along 12 of the wells, allows porosity and permeability heterogeneity to be distributed within a 3D model at the reservoir scale (area of about 2000km2) which match the flow behavior illustrated by well tests. Associated with early meteoric calcite cements and poorly developed burial blocky calcite cements, the porous and permeable intervals may be predicted in two stratigraphic and diagenetic considerations. Firstly, the syn-sedimentary meteoric dissolution or neomorphism of the initial high magnesium calcite and aragonite particles or clasts into low magnesium calcite particles or cements prevented most mechanical and chemical compaction during the first steps of burial. Secondly, the regional stratigraphic architecture reveals the presence of local permeability barriers, which prevented Early Cretaceous lateral meteoric water circulation and the associated burial calcite cementation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Horbury A.D.,Cambridge Carbonates Ltd
2nd Arabian Plate Geology Workshop 2010: Albian/Cenomanian/Turonian Carbonate-Siliciclastic Systems of the Arabian Plate | Year: 2010

Albian-Turonian carbonates in NE Arabia show a progressive retreat of their shelf margins towards palaeohighs. This retreat is controlled by localised tectonic collapse of the pre-existing platforms and relocation of platform margins onto structurally high areas. Source

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