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Fox H.E.,World Wildlife Fund | Soltanoff C.S.,World Wildlife Fund | Soltanoff C.S.,University of Maryland University College | Mascia M.B.,World Wildlife Fund | And 5 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2012

The relative paucity and heterogeneous distribution of marine protected areas (MPAs) indicates the need for better understanding of factors that foster MPA establishment at local, sub-national, and national levels. The relationship between national-level MPA establishment and geographic, ecological, social, and political factors that may drive patterns and trends in MPA establishment were assessed. A country's coastline length is the strongest predictor of both the number and spatial extent of MPAs. Controlling for coastline, the Human Development Index (HDI) and spatial overlap with designated conservation priority areas are positively correlated with MPA establishment. Surprisingly, some factors influencing MPA establishment in case studies, such as percentage of fishers within a population, were not correlated with MPA establishment on a national scale. These national dynamics explain a relatively small proportion of variation, however, indicating that other biological or social factors, as well as sub-national processes, also influence MPA establishment. Positive and negative outliers illuminate the importance of policy engagement at both national and local levels. Ensuring a supportive enabling environment at the national or even multi-national level can enhance success at the local level. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


This project uses the community of practice metaphor to explore some of the discursive characteristics of learning that take place when a group of United Kingdom-based professional examiners engage in joint-work activity in both face-to-face and remote computer-mediated communication contexts. Professional examiners are all subject experts, and the essence of their work, reinforced by the hierarchical structures that organise their working relationships, means that examiner 'learning' involves the convergence of understandings of less senior examiners with those of other, more senior examiners around key concepts. This project looks at how more senior examiners help to induct other examiners into ways of thinking within a professional community. It also looks at the role of boundary objects, such as mark schemes, which help to coordinate different perspectives within the community. Focusing specifically on the feedback that senior examiners give to less senior examiners in their team, this study extends the use of a discourse analytical approach that has only previously been used in face-to-face learning interaction to look at how shared meanings can be built through social interaction in an applied work situation. Source


Khalid M.N.,Cambridge Assessment | Glas C.A.W.,University of Twente
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2014

Item bias or differential item functioning (DIF) has an important impact on the fairness of psychological and educational testing. In this paper, DIF is seen as a lack of fit to an item response (IRT) model. Inferences about the presence and importance of DIF require a process of so-called test purification where items with DIF are identified using statistical tests and DIF is modeled using group-specific item parameters. In the present study, DIF is identified using item-oriented Lagrange multiplier statistics. The first problem addressed is that the dependence of these statistics might cause problems in the presence of a relatively large number DIF items. Therefore, a stepwise procedure is proposed where DIF items are identified one or two at a time. Simulation studies are presented to illustrate the power and Type I error rate of the procedure. The second problem pertains to the importance of DIF, i.e., the effect size, and related problem of defining a stopping rule for the searching procedure for DIF. The estimate of the difference between the means and variances of the ability distributions of the studied groups of respondents is used as an effect size and the purification procedure is stopped when the change in this effect size becomes negligible. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Dunn J.C.,University of Cambridge | Cristobal-Azkarate J.,University of Cambridge | Schulte-Herbruggen B.,Cambridge Assessment | Chavira R.,Institute Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Vea J.J.,University of Barcelona
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2013

Environmental stressors impact physiology in many animal species. Accordingly, the monitoring of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) has been increasingly used to evaluate the physiological costs of habitat disturbance on wild animal populations, providing a powerful tool for conservation and management. Several studies have suggested that primates in forest fragments have higher fGCM levels than those in continuous forests, yet the proximate causes of fGCM variation remain to be identified. In previous studies of Mexican howlers (Alouatta palliata mexicana) in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, we found that individuals living in a smaller and more disturbed forest fragment consumed significantly less fruit and had a significantly higher feeding effort than those living in a bigger, more conserved forest fragment. Here, we aimed to examine the effects of fruit consumption and travel time on fGCM levels in the same two groups of howlers, during three sampling sessions that differed markedly in fruit availability. We found that fGCM levels (N = 202 fecal samples) were higher in the howler group living in the smaller forest fragment and varied seasonally in both focal groups, being lowest when fruit consumption was highest. However, our results suggest that travel time is the main factor predicting fGCM levels in howlers, and that although fruit consumption may be negatively related to fGCM levels, this relationship is probably mediated by the strong effect that fruit consumption has on travel time. Our results provide important insight into the proximate causes of fGCM variation in primates in fragments and highlight the potential conservation significance of studies showing that habitat loss and transformation can lead to increases in travel time in wild primates. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Trademark
Cambridge Assessment | Date: 2016-06-14

DownloadableComputer programsand recorded softwarefor language assessment and learning to speak English;downloadableelectronic publicationsin the nature of brochures, magazines, newsletters, test booklets and pamphlets in the field of language assessment and learning to speak English; downloadablecomputer programsand softwarefor language assessment; educational materials in the form of computer programs for teaching languages; computer softwarefor language assessment; computer softwareandprogramsfor language assessment;computer programfor language assessmentconsisting of training materials; education software featuring instruction in English; interactive education softwarefeaturing instruction in English. Printed matter relating to examinations,namely, test booklets in the field of English and language assessment;printed matter, namely,test bookletsin the field of English;printed test forms;printededucational materials, excluding apparatus,for use in teachingin the field of English;printedteaching materials for educationin the field ofEnglish. Education advisory services; education information services; education services, namely, providing classes, workshops and lectures in the field of English; educational assessment services; educational examination; educational instruction in the field of English; educational seminars in the field of English; provision of information relating to education; provision of information relating to training in the field of English; provision of training in the field of English.

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