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Cambridge, United Kingdom

Gatoo A.,University of Cambridge | Sharma B.,University of Cambridge | Bock M.,University of Cambridge | Mulligan H.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd. | Ramage M.H.,University of Cambridge
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Engineering Sustainability

The investigation of natural products for use in construction continues to grow to fulfil the need for sustainable and locally available materials. Bamboo, being globally available and rapidly renewable, is an example of such a material. Structural and engineered bamboo products are comparatively low-energy-intensive materials with structural properties sufficient for the demands of modern construction. However, the lack of appropriate building codes and standards is a barrier to engineers and architects in using the material. This paper describes the existing national and international codes and looks towards the future development of comprehensive standards directly analogous to those in use for timber. Source

So E.,University of Cambridge | Spence R.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd.
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

Recent earthquakes such as the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 and the Qinghai earthquake on 14 April 2010 have highlighted the importance of rapid estimation of casualties after the event for humanitarian response. Both of these events resulted in surprisingly high death tolls, casualties and survivors made homeless. In the Mw = 7. 0 Haiti earthquake, over 200,000 people perished with more than 300,000 reported injuries and 2 million made homeless. The Mw = 6. 9 earthquake in Qinghai resulted in over 2,000 deaths with a further 11,000 people with serious or moderate injuries and 100,000 people have been left homeless in this mountainous region of China. In such events relief efforts can be significantly benefitted by the availability of rapid estimation and mapping of expected casualties. This paper contributes to ongoing global efforts to estimate probable earthquake casualties very rapidly after an earthquake has taken place. The analysis uses the assembled empirical damage and casualty data in the Cambridge Earthquake Impacts Database (CEQID) and explores data by event and across events to test the relationships of building and fatality distributions to the main explanatory variables of building type, building damage level and earthquake intensity. The prototype global casualty estimation model described here uses a semi-empirical approach that estimates damage rates for different classes of buildings present in the local building stock, and then relates fatality rates to the damage rates of each class of buildings. This approach accounts for the effect of the very different types of buildings (by climatic zone, urban or rural location, culture, income level etc), on casualties. The resulting casualty parameters were tested against the overall casualty data from several historical earthquakes in CEQID; a reasonable fit was found. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Platt S.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd. | Drinkwater B.D.,Izmir University of Economics
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction

This paper addresses post-disaster response and recovery in disaster management and recovery in Turkey. It discusses the findings from a real-time event, the Van Earthquake, and a scenario planning exercise in Izmir. The field work after the Van earthquake of 2011 focuses on recovery and housing relocation; and the Izmir scenario planning exercise conducted with AFAD personnel and others explores how information is used and decisions are made at different stages of response and recovery. Findings from both Van and the exercise point to a focus on immediate decisions at the expense of long-term planning that it would be sensible to address. In conclusion, this paper recommends an approach to post-earthquake management in Turkey that balances the immediate needs of speed in rebuilding the infrastructure and economy with longer-term planning goals of maintaining and enhancing quality of life and improving not only the safety, but also the resilience of the urban fabric. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Komorowski J.-C.,University Paris Diderot | Jenkins S.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd. | Jenkins S.,University of Bristol | Baxter P.J.,University of Cambridge | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research

An 11-minute sequence of laterally-directed explosions and retrogressive collapses on 5 November 2010 at Merapi (Indonesia) destroyed a rapidly-growing dome and generated high-energy pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) spreading over 22km2 with a runout of 8.4km while contemporaneous co-genetic valley-confined PDCs reached 15.5km. This event formed Stage 4 of the multi-stage 2010 eruption, the most intense eruptive episode at Merapi since 1872. The deposits and the widespread devastating impact of associated high-energy PDCs on trees and buildings show striking similarities with those from historical volcanic blasts (Montagne Pelée, Martinique, Bezymianny, Russia, Mount St. Helens, USA, Soufrière Hills, Montserrat). We provide data from stratigraphic and sedimentologic analyses of 62 sections of the first unequivocal blast-like deposits in Merapi's recent history. We used high resolution satellite imagery to map eruptive units and flow direction from the pattern of extensive tree blowdown. The stratigraphy of Stage 4 consists of three depositional units (U0, U1, U2) that we correlate to the second, third and fourth explosions of the seismic record. Both U1 and U2 show a bi-partite layer stratigraphy consisting each of a lower L1 layer and an upper L2 layer. The lower L1 layer is typically very coarse-grained, fines-poor, poorly-sorted and massive, and was deposited by the erosive waxing flow head. The overlying L2 layer is much finer grained, fines-rich, moderately to well-sorted, with laminar to wavy stratification. L2 was deposited from the waning upper part and wake of the PDC. Field observations indicate that PDC height reached ~330m with an internal velocity of ~100ms-1 within 3km from the source. The summit's geometry and the terrain morphology formed by a major transversal ridge and a funneling deep canyon strongly focused PDC mass towards a major constriction, thereby limiting the loss of kinetic energy. This favored elevated PDC velocities and high particle concentration, promoted overspilling of PDCs across high ridges into other river valleys, and generated significant dynamic pressures to distances of 6km that caused total destruction of buildings and the forest. The Merapi 2010 eruption highlights that explosive and gravitational disintegration of a rapidly growing dome can generate devastating high-energy, high-velocity PDCs. This constitutes a credible high impact scenario for future multi-stage eruptions at Merapi and at other volcanoes that pose particular monitoring, crisis response, and risk reduction challenges. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Brown D.,Chongqing University | Saito K.,Chongqing University | Liu M.,University of Cambridge | Spence R.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering

The M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008 was the most destructive in China since 1976. The event caused huge damage and loss of life and exposed weaknesses both in the formulation and implementation of the regulations governing building in the affected provinces. Following the earthquake a massive relief and recovery operation was mounted by the Chinese government. The authors took part in field studies in the affected area which took place 5 and 11 months after the event, at which time recovery operations were well-advanced. The aims of the study were to assess the effects caused by the earthquake to the built environment and society, to collect information on the ongoing recovery efforts and future plans, and to demonstrate the use of tools that allow the collection of spatially referenced damage and recovery data. Based on available satellite imagery supplemented by ground observation, geodatabases were constructed containing information on damage and recovery in several parts of the affected area. The paper gives an overview of the recovery process, describes the methods used to construct these geodatabases, and offers some analysis of the data obtained. It is argued that such databases have great potential for the management of post-disaster recovery and for creating a permanent record of the recovery process. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source

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