Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd.

Cambridge, United Kingdom

Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd.

Cambridge, United Kingdom
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.27 | Award Amount: 12.01M | Year: 2010

The overall aim of NERA is to achieve a measurable improvement and a long-term impact in the assessment and reduction of the vulnerability of constructions and citizens to earthquakes. NERA will integrate the key research infrastructures in Europe to monitor earthquakes and assess their hazard and risk, and will combine expertise in observational and strong-motion seismology, modeling, geotechnical and earthquake engineering to develop activities to improve the use of infrastructures and facilitate the access to data. NERA will ensure the provision of high-quality services, including access to earthquake data and parameters and to hazard and risk products and tools. NERA will coordinate with other EC projects (SHARE, SYNER-G) a comprehensive dissemination effort. NERA will contribute to the OECD GEM program and to the EPOS ESFRI infrastructure.

The principal objective of the CILECCTA project is to bring together a top class consortium of academic and industrial researchers, associations and enterprises both SMEs and LEs to develop a suite of software that is: capable of full Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA); compatible with codified Price Banks (PBs) and Life Cycle Inventories (LCIs) across Europe; customisable / configurable for whole assets and their components; and which will enable the assessment of sustainable options to provide decision support. The development of the CILECCTA concept has been propelled by four sets of drivers: Building industry drivers The European Construction Technology Platform has published three major strategic priorities for the industry: Meeting client/user requirements Becoming sustainable Transformation of the construction sector (i.e. its industrialisation) EC drivers for LCC The EC has recommended the development of a common LCC methodology at European level, incorporating the overall sustainability performance of building and construction to achieve sustainable building practices and improve resource efficiency. End-user / client drivers Clients need to plan with increased certainty and require New Generation Whole Life Costing Tools and analysis of the resultant Life Cycle Options (LCOs) to achieve this Commercial drivers The consortium members are all driven by the desire to research, improve and commercialise LCCA. To align with these drivers we have assembled a consortium of 20 partners including universities, RTOs, IAGs, LEs and 10 SMEs. They have developed a work programme over four years with the principal scientific objective of researching and developing the theory of LCCA and its compatibility with codified PBs and LCIs. The application of sustainable LCOs to real assets will be proved in three large-scale demonstration construction projects prior to dissemination and commercial exploitation of the project results.

Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 5.75M | Year: 2013

We propose an End Use Energy Demand (EUED) Centre focused on Energy Epidemiology to be located at the multidisciplinary UCL Energy Institute (UCL-Energy), which undertakes research on energy demand and energy systems. Energy Epidemiology uses data and modelling to study energy use in the real world, with the aim of understanding the interactions of policy, technology, infrastructure, people and culture. The Centre for Energy Epidemiology (CEE) will: undertake primary data collection; advise on data collection; provide secure and ethical curation of a wealth of administrative, commercial and research data; link, develop and use innovative research methods; and support a structured research programme on energy demand intended to achieve a major reduction in UK carbon emissions. CEE will provide key research and policy insights at city, regional, national and international levels. It will support UK academics, policymakers and industry to research energy demand, by providing a cost-effective, secure and ethical bureau service for energy and related data. It will work closely with the new cross-government Energy Efficiency Deployment Office (EEDO) of DECC, the Energy Saving Trust, UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) and the new Open Data Institute (ODI) to marshal and maximise the value of existing and very large future sources of energy-related data (big data), ensuring the greatest impact for evidence-based energy demand research. The Centre will initiate and be a key player in an international network of energy epidemiologists, sharing research methods and undertaking cross-cultural comparisons of policies and technologies to reduce energy demand and to help the UK to meet its carbon targets. UCL-Energy: - has a clear focus on energy demand and its interaction with energy supply systems - this has been the core focus of UCL-Energy since its launch, with full UCL support, 35 months ago. - is multi- and interdisciplinary with lawyers, economists, social scientists, engineers, physicists, psychologists, architects, mathematicians and policy analysts co-located in open plan offices facilitating collaborative work. It has successfully worked with researchers from anthropology, English literature and history on energy demand problems. - makes an impact by supporting policy makers and industry to both set and achieve UK carbon targets. Examples of such support include the Green Deal, CCC budgets, smart meter rollout, and the development of products for reducing energy demand. UCL-Energy is the only university centre that has officially advised DECCs new EEDO, whose focus is squarely on EUED. - undertakes research of the highest quality; its staff were recognised as world leading by two successive EPSRC Platform Grant reviews. Roughly half its staff were submitted in the Built Environment UoA (30), for which UCL received the highest percentage (35%) of internationally leading staff (4*) in the UK. It holds the grant for the only Centre for Doctoral Training in energy demand. - is not sector-specific; it covers all energy uses and applies methods across sectors e.g. transport and buildings. - is managed as a coherent centre - this is facilitated by placing all staff under a single budget centre with a clear management structure. UCL-Energy is advised and guided by a prestigious International Advisory Board with CEOs and directors from leading companies around the world. - has leveraged a wide range of funding. From an initial UCL investment of £680k, it has so far raised £10m of external funding, including £2m from industry. - has strong leadership - its Director, Professor Tadj Oreszczyn has established a new academic department at UCL in less than 3 years, advises government at senior level, is on the boards of key organisations and has written several strategic papers on the future direction of energy demand research. - has critical mass and sustainability: UCL-Energy has 80 staff and PhD students

Fawcett W.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd | Hughes M.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd | Krieg H.,University of Stuttgart | Albrecht S.,University of Stuttgart | Vennstrom A.,Lulea University of Technology
Building Research and Information | Year: 2012

Assessing the economic and environmental life cycle impacts of long-lasting construction projects presents numerous methodological challenges. Three advances over established methods are presented for the life cycle evaluation of construction projects. First, future uncertainty during the project life or study period is explicitly accounted for. This involves moving from a deterministic approach requiring precise data to a probabilistic approach where uncertain variables are defined by ranges. The outcome of life cycle evaluation is then given by probability distributions, generated by Monte Carlo simulation. Second, flexible strategies are considered that allow for adaptation to changing conditions during the project life. Flexible strategies (also modelled by Monte Carlo simulation) incorporate specified life cycle options which are exercised if it is advantageous to do so, otherwise they remain unexercised. Third, cost-based life cycle costing (LCC) and environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) are linked in a single LCC+A evaluation tool. There are still differences between cost and environmental evaluation, but the use of a shared framework enables the two aspects to be compared systematically. The two-dimensional ecoportfolio diagram presents one way of analysing results. The innovations are demonstrated in a case study that assesses both economic and environmental impacts while accounting for future uncertainties. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Goda K.,University of Bristol | Pomonis A.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd | Chian S.C.,University of Cambridge | Offord M.,Sellafield Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2013

A catastrophic Mw9. 0 earthquake and subsequent giant tsunami struck the Tōhoku and Kanto regions of Japan on 11th March 2011, causing tremendous casualties, massive damage to structures and infrastructure, and huge economic loss. This event has revealed weakness and vulnerability of urban cities and modern society in Japan, which were thought to be one of the most earthquake-prepared nations in the world. Nevertheless, recorded ground motion data from this event offer invaluable information and opportunity; their unique features include very strong short-period spectral content, long duration, and effects due to local asperities as well as direction of rupture/wave propagation. Aiming at gaining useful experience from this tragic event, Earthquake Engineering Field Investigation Team (EEFIT) organised and dispatched a team to the Tōhoku region of Japan. During the EEFIT mission, ground shaking damage surveys were conducted in Sendai, Shirakawa, and Sukagawa, where the Japan Meteorological Agency intensity of 6+ was observed and instrumentally recorded ground motion data were available. The damage survey results identify the key factors for severe shaking damage, such as insufficient lateral reinforcement and detailing in structural columns from structural capacity viewpoint and rich spectral content of ground shaking in the intermediate vibration period range from seismic demand viewpoint. Importantly, inclusion of several ground motion parameters, such as nonlinear structural response, in shaking damage surveys, can improve the correlation of observed ground motion with shaking damage and therefore enhance existing indicators of potential damage. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Booth E.,Edmund Booth Consulting Engineer | Saito K.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd | Spence R.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd | Madabhushi G.,Trumpington Street | Eguchi R.T.,ImageCat Inc.
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2011

Assessments of damage following the 2010 Haitian earthquake were validated by comparing three datasets. The first, for 107,000 buildings, used vertical aerial images with a 15-25 cm spatial resolution. The second, for 1,241 buildings, used Pictometry images (oblique angle shots with a resolution of about 10 cm taken in four directions by aircraft). The third dataset, for 142 buildings, used ground observations. The ground observations confirmed the tendency of remote sensing to underestimate the proportion of heavily damaged and collapsed buildings, and the difficulty of making remote assessments of moderate or low damage. Bayesian statistics and sample surveys made from Pictometry images and ground observations were used to improve remote damage assessments from vertical images. The possibility of developing standard factors to correct remote assessments is discussed. The field exercise pointed to the need to produce an internationally agreed-upon set of damage definitions, suitable for postdisaster needs assessments as well as for other uses. © 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Tillson A.-A.,University College London | Oreszczyn T.,University College London | Palmer J.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd
Building Research and Information | Year: 2013

The UK is predicted to experience warmer summers in the future, but the domestic building stock in England was not designed to cope with this change. The Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) 2009 is used to assess the current state of the English building stock in terms of its vulnerability to overheating. The English Housing Survey 2009 provided data for 16 150 dwellings which are weighted to represent the housing stock. SAP predicts 82% of dwellings are currently at 'slight' risk of overheating and 41% at medium to high risk. If summer temperatures become 1.4°C warmer, then 99% of properties are predicted to have a medium to high risk of overheating. Several potential adaptations to the housing stock were considered to reduce overheating. Although ventilation strategies had the largest positive effect, the use of solar shading and shutters which allow secure ventilation could reduce vulnerability to overheating in the current climate. In a warmer climate, although some dwellings would still be at slight risk, the results suggest that solar shading strategies could reduce the percentage of those at medium to high risk to 6%. Future energy efficiency programmes will need to include adaptation measures to prevent overheating. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Brown D.,Chongqing University | Saito K.,Chongqing University | Liu M.,University of Cambridge | Spence R.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2012

The M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008 was the most destructive in China since 1976. The event caused huge damage and loss of life and exposed weaknesses both in the formulation and implementation of the regulations governing building in the affected provinces. Following the earthquake a massive relief and recovery operation was mounted by the Chinese government. The authors took part in field studies in the affected area which took place 5 and 11 months after the event, at which time recovery operations were well-advanced. The aims of the study were to assess the effects caused by the earthquake to the built environment and society, to collect information on the ongoing recovery efforts and future plans, and to demonstrate the use of tools that allow the collection of spatially referenced damage and recovery data. Based on available satellite imagery supplemented by ground observation, geodatabases were constructed containing information on damage and recovery in several parts of the affected area. The paper gives an overview of the recovery process, describes the methods used to construct these geodatabases, and offers some analysis of the data obtained. It is argued that such databases have great potential for the management of post-disaster recovery and for creating a permanent record of the recovery process. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Platt S.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd. | Drinkwater B.D.,Izmir University of Economics
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2016

This paper addresses post-disaster response and recovery in disaster management and recovery in Turkey. It discusses the findings from a real-time event, the Van Earthquake, and a scenario planning exercise in Izmir. The field work after the Van earthquake of 2011 focuses on recovery and housing relocation; and the Izmir scenario planning exercise conducted with AFAD personnel and others explores how information is used and decisions are made at different stages of response and recovery. Findings from both Van and the exercise point to a focus on immediate decisions at the expense of long-term planning that it would be sensible to address. In conclusion, this paper recommends an approach to post-earthquake management in Turkey that balances the immediate needs of speed in rebuilding the infrastructure and economy with longer-term planning goals of maintaining and enhancing quality of life and improving not only the safety, but also the resilience of the urban fabric. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

So E.,University of Cambridge | Spence R.,Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd.
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2013

Recent earthquakes such as the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 and the Qinghai earthquake on 14 April 2010 have highlighted the importance of rapid estimation of casualties after the event for humanitarian response. Both of these events resulted in surprisingly high death tolls, casualties and survivors made homeless. In the Mw = 7. 0 Haiti earthquake, over 200,000 people perished with more than 300,000 reported injuries and 2 million made homeless. The Mw = 6. 9 earthquake in Qinghai resulted in over 2,000 deaths with a further 11,000 people with serious or moderate injuries and 100,000 people have been left homeless in this mountainous region of China. In such events relief efforts can be significantly benefitted by the availability of rapid estimation and mapping of expected casualties. This paper contributes to ongoing global efforts to estimate probable earthquake casualties very rapidly after an earthquake has taken place. The analysis uses the assembled empirical damage and casualty data in the Cambridge Earthquake Impacts Database (CEQID) and explores data by event and across events to test the relationships of building and fatality distributions to the main explanatory variables of building type, building damage level and earthquake intensity. The prototype global casualty estimation model described here uses a semi-empirical approach that estimates damage rates for different classes of buildings present in the local building stock, and then relates fatality rates to the damage rates of each class of buildings. This approach accounts for the effect of the very different types of buildings (by climatic zone, urban or rural location, culture, income level etc), on casualties. The resulting casualty parameters were tested against the overall casualty data from several historical earthquakes in CEQID; a reasonable fit was found. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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