Cambria Pharmaceuticals

United States

Cambria Pharmaceuticals

United States

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Benmohamed R.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Arvanites A.C.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Arvanites A.C.,Harvard Stem Cell Institute | Kim J.,Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center | And 6 more authors.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis | Year: 2011

The underlying cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, remains unknown. However, there is strong evidence that one pathophysiological mechanism, toxic protein misfolding and/or aggregation, may trigger motor neuron dysfunction and loss. Since the clinical and pathological features of sporadic and familial ALS are indistinguishable, all forms of the disease may be better understood and ultimately treated by studying pathogenesis and therapy in models expressing mutant forms of SOD1. We developed a cellular model in which cell death depended on the expression of G93A-SOD1, a mutant form of superoxide dismutase found in familial ALS patients that produces toxic protein aggregates. This cellular model was optimized for high throughput screening to identify protective compounds from a >50,000 member chemical library. Three novel chemical scaffolds were selected for further study following screen implementation, counter-screening and secondary testing, including studies with purchased analogs. All three scaffolds blocked SOD1 aggregation in high content screening assays and data on the optimization and further characterization of these compounds will be reported separately. These data suggest that optimization of these chemicals scaffolds may produce therapeutic candidates for ALS patients. © 2011 Informa Healthcare.


Chen T.,Northwestern University | Benmohamed R.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Arvanites A.C.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Ranaivo H.R.,Northwestern University | And 8 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an orphan neurodegenerative disease currently without a cure. Mutations in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of this disease. Using a high-throughput screening assay expressing mutant G93A SOD1, two bioactive chemical hit compounds (1 and 2), identified as arylsulfanyl pyrazolones, were identified. The structural optimization of this scaffold led to the generation of a more potent analogue (19) with an EC50 of 170 nM. To determine the suitability of this class of compounds for further optimization, 1 was subjected to a battery of pharmacokinetic assays; most of the properties of 1 were good for a screening hit, except it had a relatively rapid clearance and short microsomal half-life stability. Compound 2 was found to be blood-brain barrier penetrating with a brain/plasma ratio = 0.19. The optimization of this class of compounds could produce novel therapeutic candidates for ALS patients. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Xia G.,Northwestern University | Benmohamed R.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Kim J.,Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center | Kim J.,Boston University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and death, most often from respiratory failure. The only FDA-approved drug for the treatment of ALS, riluzole, only extends the median survival in patients by 2-3 months. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease. Using a high-throughput screening assay targeting an ALS cultured cell model (PC12-G93A-YFP cell line), we previously identified three chemotypes that were neuroprotective. We present a further detailed analysis of one promising scaffold from that group, pyrimidine-2,4,6-triones (PYTs), characterizing a number of PYT analogues using SAR and ADME. The PYT compounds show good potency, superior ADME data, low toxicity, brain penetration, and excellent oral bioavailability. Compounds from this series show 100% efficacy in the protection assay with a good correlation in activity between the protection and protein aggregation assays. The modifications of the PYT scaffold presented here suggest that this chemical structure may be a novel drug candidate scaffold for use in clinical trials in ALS. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Trippier P.C.,Northwestern University | Trippier P.C.,Texas Tech University | Zhao K.T.,Northwestern University | Fox S.G.,Chemistry of Life Processes Institute | And 7 more authors.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

(Chemical Equation Presented) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease. Pyrazolone containing small molecules have shown significant disease attenuating efficacy in cellular and murine models of ALS. Pyrazolone based affinity probes were synthesized to identify high affi nity binding partners and ascertain a potential biological mode of action. Probes were confirmed to be neuroprotective in PC12-SOD1G93A cells. PC12-SOD1G93A cell lysates were used for protein pull-down, affinity purification, and subsequent proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS. Proteomics identified the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 4 (PSMC1), 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 6B (PSMC4), and T-complex protein 1 (TCP-1) as putative protein targets. Coincubation with appropriate competitors confirmed the authenticity of the proteomics results. Activation of the proteasome by pyrazolones was demonstrated in the absence of exogenous proteasome inhibitor and by restoration of cellular protein degradation of a fluorogenic proteasome substrate in PC12-SOD1G93A cells. Importantly, supplementary studies indicated that these molecules do not induce a heat shock response. We propose that pyrazolones represent a rare class of molecules that enhance proteasomal activation in the absence of a heat shock response and may have therapeutic potential in ALS. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Watson G.B.,Dow AgroSciences | Chouinard S.W.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Cook K.R.,Indiana University | Geng C.,Dow AgroSciences | And 11 more authors.
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Strains of Drosophila melanogaster with resistance to the insecticides spinosyn A, spinosad, and spinetoram were produced by chemical mutagenesis. These spinosyn-resistant strains were not cross-resistant to other insecticides. The two strains that were initially characterized were subsequently found to have mutations in the gene encoding the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit Dα6. Subsequently, additional spinosyn-resistant alleles were generated by chemical mutagenesis and were also found to have mutations in the gene encoding Dα6, providing convincing evidence that Dα6 is a target site for the spinosyns in D. melanogaster. Although a spinosyn-sensitive receptor could not be generated in Xenopus laevis oocytes simply by expressing Dα6 alone, co-expression of Dα6 with an additional nAChR subunit, Dα5, and the chaperone protein ric-3 resulted in an acetylcholine- and spinosyn-sensitive receptor with the pharmacological properties anticipated for a native nAChR. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhang Y.,Northwestern University | Benmohamed R.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Huang H.,Northwestern University | Chen T.,Northwestern University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

The arylsulfanylpyrazolone and aryloxanylpyrazolone scaffolds previously were reported to inhibit Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 dependent protein aggregation and to extend survival in the ALS mouse model. However, further evaluation of these compounds indicated weak pharmacokinetic properties and a relatively low maximum tolerated dose. On the basis of an ADME analysis, a new series of compounds, the arylazanylpyrazolones, has been synthesized, and structure-activity relationships were determined. The SAR results showed that the pyrazolone ring is critical to cellular protection. The NMR, IR, and computational analyses suggest that phenol-type tautomers of the pyrazolone ring are the active pharmacophore with the arylazanylpyrazolone analogues. A comparison of experimental and calculated IR spectra is shown to be a valuable method to identify the predominant tautomer. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Zhang W.,Northwestern University | Zhang W.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Benmohamed R.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Arvanites A.C.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | And 6 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Currently, there is only one FDA-approved treatment for ALS (riluzole), and that drug only extends life, on average, by 2-3 months. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are found in familial forms of the disease and have played an important role in the study of ALS pathophysiology. On the basis of their activity in a PC12-G93A-YFP high-throughput screening assay, several bioactive compounds have been identified and classified as cyclohexane-1,3-dione (CHD) derivatives. A concise and efficient synthetic route has been developed to provide diverse CHD analogs. The structural modification of the CHD scaffold led to the discovery of a more potent analog (26) with an EC 50 of 700 nM having good pharmacokinetic properties, such as high solubility, low human and mouse metabolic potential, and relatively good plasma stability. It was also found to efficiently penetrate the blood-brain barrier. However, compound 26 did not exhibit any significant life span extension in the ALS mouse model. It was found that, although 26 was active in PC12 cells, it had poor activity in other cell types, including primary cortical neurons, indicating that it can penetrate into the brain, but is not active in neuronal cells, potentially due to poor selective cell penetration. Further structural modification of the CHD scaffold was aimed at improving global cell activity as well as maintaining potency. Two new analogs (71 and 73) were synthesized, which had significantly enhanced cortical neuronal cell permeability, as well as similar potency to that of 26 in the PC12-G93A assay. These CHD analogs are being investigated further as novel therapeutic candidates for ALS. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Trippier P.C.,Northwestern University | Benmohammed R.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Kirsch D.R.,Cambria Pharmaceuticals | Silverman R.B.,Northwestern University
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating and fatal neurodegenerative disease. Although the cause remains unknown, misfolded protein aggregates are seen in neurons of sporadic ALS patients, and familial ALS mutations, including mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), produce proteins with an increased propensity to misfold and aggregate. A structure activity relationship of a lead scaffold exhibiting neuroprotective activity in a G93A-SOD1 mouse model for ALS has been further investigated in a model PC12 cellular assay. Synthesis of biotinylated probes at the N1 nitrogen of the pyrazolone ring gave compounds (5d-e) that retained activity within 10-fold of the proton-bearing lead compound (5a) and were equipotent with a sterically less cumbersome N1-methyl substituted analogue (5b). However, when methyl substitution was introduced at N1 and N 2 of the pyrazolone ring, the compound was inactive (5c). These data led us to investigate further the pharmacophoric nature of the pyrazolone unit. A range of N1 substitutions were tolerated, leading to the identification of an N1-benzyl substituted pyrazolone (5m), equipotent with 5a. Substitution at N2 or excision of N2, however, removed all activity. Therefore, the hydrogen bond donating ability of the N2-H of the pyrazolone ring appears to be a critical part of the structure, which will influence further analogue synthesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Cambria Pharmaceuticals
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Expert opinion on drug discovery | Year: 2013

Early-stage translational research programs have increasingly exploited yeast, worms and flies to model human disease. These genetically tractable organisms represent flexible platforms for small molecule and drug target discovery. This review highlights recent examples of how model organisms are integrated into chemical genomic approaches to drug discovery with an emphasis on fungal yeast, nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The roles of these organisms are expanding as novel models of human disease are developed and novel high-throughput screening technologies are created and adapted for drug discovery.


PubMed | Cambria Pharmaceuticals and Northwestern University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2014

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and death, most often from respiratory failure. Over 200 pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione (PYT) small molecules, which prevent aggregation and reduce the associated toxicity of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) found in patients with familial ALS, have been synthesized and tested. One of the compounds (1,3-bis(2-phenylethyl)pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, (1) was previously found to have an excellent combination of potency efficacy, and some desirable pharmacokinetic properties. To improve the solubility and metabolic stability properties of this compound, deuterium and fluorine were introduced into 1. New analogs with better solubility, plasma stability, and human microsome stability were identified.

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