Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Phnom Penh, Cambodia

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Blanc F.-X.,Bicetre Hospital | Sok T.,Cambodian Health Committee | Laureillard D.,Cambodian Health Committee | Laureillard D.,Georges Pompidou European Hospital | And 25 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains an important cause of death among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Robust data are lacking with regard to the timing for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in relation to the start of antituberculosis therapy. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that the timing of ART initiation would significantly affect mortality among adults not previously exposed to antiretroviral drugs who had newly diagnosed tuberculosis and CD4+ T-cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or lower. After beginning the standard, 6-month treatment for tuberculosis, patients were randomly assigned to either earlier treatment (2 weeks after beginning tuberculosis treatment) or later treatment (8 weeks after) with stavudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. The primary end point was survival. RESULTS: A total of 661 patients were enrolled and were followed for a median of 25 months. The median CD4+ T-cell count was 25 per cubic millimeter, and the median viral load was 5.64 log10 copies per milliliter. The risk of death was significantly reduced in the group that received ART earlier, with 59 deaths among 332 patients (18%), as compared with 90 deaths among 329 patients (27%) in the later-ART group (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.44 to 0.86; P = 0.006). The risk of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was significantly increased in the earlier-ART group (hazard ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.59; P<0.001). Irrespective of the study group, the median gain in the CD4+ T-cell count was 114 per cubic millimeter, and the viral load was undetectable at week 50 in 96.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Initiating ART 2 weeks after the start of tuberculosis treatment significantly improved survival among HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T-cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or lower. (Funded by the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis and the National Institutes of Health; CAMELIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01300481.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Cambodian Health Committee ANRS, Institute Pasteur in Cambodia, Médecins Sans Frontières, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2014

Shortening the interval between antituberculosis treatment onset and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with tuberculosis. A better understanding of causes and determinants of death may lead to new strategies to further enhance survival.We assessed mortality rates, causes of death, and factors of mortality in Cambodian HIV-infected adults with CD4 count 200 cells/L and tuberculosis, randomized to initiate ART either 2 weeks (early ART) or 8 weeks (late ART) after tuberculosis treatment onset in the CAMELIA clinical trial.Six hundred sixty-one patients enrolled contributed to 1366.1 person-years of follow-up; 149 (22.5%) died. There were 8.3 deaths per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.4-10.7) in the early-ART group and 13.8 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI, 11.2-16.9) in the late-ART group (P = .002). Tuberculosis was the primary cause of death (28%), followed by other HIV-associated conditions (19%). Factors independently associated with mortality in the first 26 weeks were the age, body mass index, hemoglobin, interrupted or ineffective tuberculosis treatment before identification of drug resistance, disseminated tuberculosis, and nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. After 50 weeks in the trial, the most frequent causes of death were non-HIV related or tuberculosis related, including drug toxicity; factors associated with mortality were late ART, loss to follow-up, and absence of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis.Despite ART introduction, mortality remained high, with tuberculosis as the leading cause of death. Reducing tuberculosis-related mortality remains a challenge in resource-limited settings and requires innovative strategies. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00226434.


PubMed | National Center for Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control, San Francisco General Hospital, World Health Organization, University of California at San Francisco and Cambodian Health Committee
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2014

Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). A Cambodia study found that one third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results.To quantify the gaps in the detection of MDR-TB in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions.Analysis of Cambodias 2004-2012 case notifications and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders.The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces in 2010-2012. If there had been no attrition along the path to detecting MDR-TB among smear-positive notified cases in 2012, an estimated 75 additional MDR-TB cases could have been identified, which would double the number actually detected. Most were lost due to misclassification of previously treated patients as new. Barriers include patients reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty in eliciting treatment history, partly attributed to the availability of streptomycin (SM) only in hospitals. Facilitators include collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not receiving SM, streamlining sputum transportation and prompt reporting of results.Improved monitoring, supportive staff supervision and training, patient education, and correct classification of previously treated cases are essential for improving the detection of MDR-TB.


PubMed | Institute of Tropical Medicine and Cambodian Health Committee
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

Limited access to drug susceptibility testing (DST) in referral hospitals contributes to delayed detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).To document the impact of identifying rifampicin (RMP) resistance using Xpert() MTB/RIF on time to diagnosis and time to treatment, and evaluate its performance under programmatic conditions.Using a prospective observational study, we screened presumptive MDR-TB cases with Xpert and solid culture/conventional DST. RMP resistance was confirmed using a line-probe assay (LPA). We recorded diagnostic and treatment delays. We performed rpoB gene sequencing post hoc to resolve discordant RMP susceptibilities.We screened 299 of 345 presumptive MDR-TB individuals, and identified 44 Xpert RMP-resistant cases: 16/165 (10%) were new and 28/136 (20%) retreated. The median time to diagnosis was 2 days (Xpert) vs. an additional 6 with LPA; the median time to treatment was 14 days. Confirmatory LPA on 39/44 revealed 27 concordant, 6 discordant and 6 invalid results. Xpert RMP resistance was confirmed in respectively 24/30 (80%) and 21/23 (91%) by phenotypic DST and rpoB sequencing.Screening presumptive MDR-TB patients with Xpert enabled rapid diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB. Xpert performed well, provided appropriate risk assessment was done. Rapid confirmatory testing added little to clinical decision making. Our findings support the latest World Health Organization guidelines to abandon confirmatory LPA in favour of repeat Xpert when in clinical doubt, pending phenotypic DST.


Laureillard D.,French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis ANRS | Marcy O.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Marcy O.,Cambodian Health Committee | Madec Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 16 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To analyze cases of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the CAMbodian Early versus Late Introduction of Antiretrovirals (CAMELIA) randomized trial designed to compare early (2 weeks) versus late (8 weeks) antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset in Cambodia (NCT00226434). METHODS: ART-naive adults with CD4 cell count of 200 cells/μl or less, newly diagnosed tuberculosis, and at least one follow-up visit after ART initiation were included in this analysis. Each case of suspected TB-IRIS was systematically validated by two physicians not involved in patients' management. Factors associated with occurrence of TB-IRIS were identified using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Among 597 patients, 26% experienced TB-IRIS with an incidence rate of 37.9 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 32.4-44.4]. Main clinical manifestations included new or worsening lymphadenopathy (77.4%) and fever (68.4%). Chest radiograph revealed new or worsening abnormalities in 53.4%. Symptoms resolved in 95.5% of patients. Six deaths were directly related to TB-IRIS. Initiating ART early increased the risk of TB-IRIS by 2.61 (95% CI 1.84-3.70). Extrapulmonary or disseminated tuberculosis, CD4 cell count of 100 cells/μl or less, and HIV RNA concentration more than 6 log10 copies/ml were also significantly associated with higher risk of TB-IRIS. CONCLUSION: Shortening the delay between tuberculosis treatment onset and ART initiation to 2 weeks was associated with an increased risk of developing TB-IRIS. However, TB-IRIS was generally easily manageable. Given the marked reported survival advantage of early ART initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset, these data indicate that fear of TB-IRIS should not be an impediment to early ART in adults with advanced immunodeficiency in resource-limited, high burden settings. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Haridas V.,Harvard University | Pean P.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Jasenosky L.D.,Harvard University | Madec Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | And 16 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the impact of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) upon immunological recovery and the T-cell compartment after initiation of TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design and methods: We prospectively evaluated T-cell immunophenotypes by flow cytometry and cytokines by Luminex assays in a subset (n=154) of highly immunosuppressed HIV-infected patients with TB from the Cambodian Early versus Late Introduction of Antiretrovirals randomized clinical trial. We compared findings from patients who developed TB-IRIS with findings from patients who did not develop TBIRIS. Data were evaluated with mixed-effect linear regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and q-values were calculated to control for multiple comparisons. Results: Development of TB-IRIS was associated with significantly greater pre-ART frequencies of HLA-DR+CD45RO+CD4+, CCR5+CD4+, OX40+CD4+, and Fas+ effector memory CD8+ T cells, and significantly elevated levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1b, IL-8, and IL-10, and viral load. Post-ART initiation, effector memory CD4+ and Fas+ effector memory CD4+ T-cell frequencies significantly expanded, and central memory CD4+ T-cell frequencies significantly contracted in patients who experienced TB-IRIS. By week 34 post-TB treatment initiation, effector memory/central memory CD4+ T-cell ratios were markedly higher in TB-IRIS versus non-TB-IRIS patients. Conclusions: A distinct pattern of pre-ART T-cell and cytokine markers appear to poise the immune response of certain patients to develop TB-IRIS. Experience of TB-IRIS is then associated with long-term remodeling of the CD4+ T-cell memory compartment towards an effector memory-dominated phenotype. We speculate that these pre and post-ART TB-IRIS-associated immune parameters may contribute to superior immune control of TB/HIV co-infection and better clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Pean P.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Nerrienet E.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Madec Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Borand L.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 11 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a common and potentially serious complication occurring in HIV-infected patients being treated for tuberculosis (TB) using combined antiretroviral treatment. A role of adaptive immunity has been suggested in the onset of IRIS, whereas the role of natural killer (NK) cells has not yet been explored. The present study sought to examine the involvement of NK cells in the onset of IRIS in HIV-infected patients with TB and to identify predictive markers of IRIS. A total of 128 HIV-infected patients with TB from the Cambodian Early versus Late Introduction of Antiretroviral Drugs (CAMELIA) trial were enrolled in Cambodia. Thirty-seven of the 128 patients developed IRIS. At inclusion, patients had low CD4 cell counts (27 cells/mm 3) and high plasma viral load (5.76 and 5.50 log/mL in IRIS and non-IRIS patients, respectively). At baseline, NK-cell degranulation capacity was significantly higher in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients (9.6% vs 6.38%, P < .005). At IRIS onset, degranulation capacity did not differ between patients, whereas activating receptor expression was lower in IRIS patients. Patients with degranulation levels > 10.84% had a higher risk of IRIS (P = .002 by log-rank test). Degranulation level at baseline was the most important IRIS predictor (hazard ratio = 4.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.60-12.16). We conclude that NK-degranulation levels identify higher IRIS risk in HIV-infected patients with TB. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.


Rangaka M.X.,University College London | Rangaka M.X.,University of Cape Town | Cavalcante S.C.,Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Marais B.J.,University of Sydney | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

The billions of people with latent tuberculosis infection serve as the seedbeds for future cases of active tuberculosis. Virtually all episodes of tuberculosis disease are preceded by a period of asymptomatic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; therefore, identifying infected individuals most likely to progress to disease and treating such subclinical infections to prevent future disease provides a crucial opportunity to interrupt tuberculosis transmission and reduce the global burden of tuberculosis disease. Programmes focusing on single strategies rather than comprehensive programmes that deliver an integrated arsenal for tuberculosis control might continue to struggle. Tuberculosis preventive therapy is a poorly used method that is essential for controlling the reservoirs of disease that drive the epidemic. Comprehensive control strategies that combine preventive therapy for the most high-risk populations and communities with improved case-finding and treatment, control of transmission, and health systems strengthening could ultimately lead to worldwide tuberculosis elimination. In this Series paper we outline challenges to implementation of preventive therapy and provide pragmatic suggestions for overcoming them. We further advocate for tuberculosis preventive therapy as the core of a renewed worldwide focus to implement a comprehensive epidemic control strategy that would reduce new tuberculosis cases to elimination targets. This strategy would be underpinned by accelerated research to further understand the biology of subclinical tuberculosis infections, develop novel diagnostics and drug regimens specifically for subclinical tuberculosis infection, strengthen health systems and community engagement, and enhance sustainable large scale implementation of preventive therapy programmes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Witwatersrand, National Institute for Research on Tuberculosis, Johns Hopkins University, University of Cape Town and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2015

The billions of people with latent tuberculosis infection serve as the seedbeds for future cases of active tuberculosis. Virtually all episodes of tuberculosis disease are preceded by a period of asymptomatic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; therefore, identifying infected individuals most likely to progress to disease and treating such subclinical infections to prevent future disease provides a crucial opportunity to interrupt tuberculosis transmission and reduce the global burden of tuberculosis disease. Programmes focusing on single strategies rather than comprehensive programmes that deliver an integrated arsenal for tuberculosis control might continue to struggle. Tuberculosis preventive therapy is a poorly used method that is essential for controlling the reservoirs of disease that drive the epidemic. Comprehensive control strategies that combine preventive therapy for the most high-risk populations and communities with improved case-finding and treatment, control of transmission, and health systems strengthening could ultimately lead to worldwide tuberculosis elimination. In this Series paper we outline challenges to implementation of preventive therapy and provide pragmatic suggestions for overcoming them. We further advocate for tuberculosis preventive therapy as the core of a renewed worldwide focus to implement a comprehensive epidemic control strategy that would reduce new tuberculosis cases to elimination targets. This strategy would be underpinned by accelerated research to further understand the biology of subclinical tuberculosis infections, develop novel diagnostics and drug regimens specifically for subclinical tuberculosis infection, strengthen health systems and community engagement, and enhance sustainable large scale implementation of preventive therapy programmes.


Borand L.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Laureillard D.,ANRS | Madec Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Chou M.,University of Health Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2013

Background: The optimal dose of efavirenz for HIV-infected patients receiving a tuberculosis regimen including rifampicin remains debated, especially for subjects weighing over 50 kg. To address this issue, we measured plasma efavirenz concentrations from Cambodian adults with tuberculosis enrolled in the CAMELIA randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01300481) 6 weeks after the onset of antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Efavirenz concentrations and proportions of patients with concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml were compared across patient body weight below or above 50 kg using a Student's t-test and a χ2 test, respectively. Factors associated with efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml were identified by logistic regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis was also performed to check if efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml were associated with virological failure. Results: Plasma efavirenz concentrations were higher in the 332 patients who weighed <50 kg compared with the 150 who weighed ≥50 kg (median [IQR] 2,859 [1,787-4,749] and 2,060 [1,425-3,575] ng/ml, respectively; P=0.02). However, the proportion of patients with efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml was not different between those weighing less than or more than 50 kg (6% and 10%, respectively; P=0.13) and a body weight above 50 kg was not associated with a higher risk of plasma efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml. When plasma efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml were present, they were not associated with virological failure. Conclusions: The current WHO guidelines recommending 600 mg efavirenz daily irrespective of patient's body weight remains a safe and effective approach to treating coinfected adults needing simultaneous tuberculosis and HIV therapy. ©2013 International Medical Press.

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