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Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Lorent N.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Sam S.,Cambodian Health Committee | Colebunders R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Colebunders R.,University of Antwerp | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2015

SETTING: Limited access to drug susceptibility testing (DST) in referral hospitals contributes to delayed detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB). OBJECTIVE: To document the impact of identifying rifampicin (RMP) resistance using Xpertw MTB/RIF on time to diagnosis and time to treatment, and evaluate its performance under programmatic conditions. METHODS: Using a prospective observational study, we screened presumptive MDR-TB cases with Xpert and solid culture/conventional DST. RMP resistance was confirmed using a line-probe assay (LPA). We recorded diagnostic and treatment delays. We performed rpoB gene sequencing post hoc to resolve discordant RMP susceptibilities. RESULTS: We screened 299 of 345 presumptive MDRTB individuals, and identified 44 Xpert RMP-resistant cases: 16/165 (10%) were new and 28/136 (20%) retreated. The median time to diagnosis was 2 days (Xpert) vs. an additional 6 with LPA; the median time to treatment was 14 days. Confirmatory LPA on 39/44 revealed 27 concordant, 6 discordant and 6 invalid results. Xpert RMP resistance was confirmed in respectively 24/30 (80%) and 21/23 (91%) by phenotypic DST and rpoB sequencing. CONCLUSION: Screening presumptive MDR-TB patients with Xpert enabled rapid diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB. Xpert performed well, provided appropriate risk assessment was done. Rapid confirmatory testing added little to clinical decision making. Our findings support the latest World Health Organization guidelines to abandon confirmatory LPA in favour of repeat Xpert when in clinical doubt, pending phenotypic DST. © 2015 The Union. Source

Rangaka M.X.,University College London | Rangaka M.X.,University of Cape Town | Cavalcante S.C.,Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Marais B.J.,University of Sydney | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

The billions of people with latent tuberculosis infection serve as the seedbeds for future cases of active tuberculosis. Virtually all episodes of tuberculosis disease are preceded by a period of asymptomatic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; therefore, identifying infected individuals most likely to progress to disease and treating such subclinical infections to prevent future disease provides a crucial opportunity to interrupt tuberculosis transmission and reduce the global burden of tuberculosis disease. Programmes focusing on single strategies rather than comprehensive programmes that deliver an integrated arsenal for tuberculosis control might continue to struggle. Tuberculosis preventive therapy is a poorly used method that is essential for controlling the reservoirs of disease that drive the epidemic. Comprehensive control strategies that combine preventive therapy for the most high-risk populations and communities with improved case-finding and treatment, control of transmission, and health systems strengthening could ultimately lead to worldwide tuberculosis elimination. In this Series paper we outline challenges to implementation of preventive therapy and provide pragmatic suggestions for overcoming them. We further advocate for tuberculosis preventive therapy as the core of a renewed worldwide focus to implement a comprehensive epidemic control strategy that would reduce new tuberculosis cases to elimination targets. This strategy would be underpinned by accelerated research to further understand the biology of subclinical tuberculosis infections, develop novel diagnostics and drug regimens specifically for subclinical tuberculosis infection, strengthen health systems and community engagement, and enhance sustainable large scale implementation of preventive therapy programmes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Laureillard D.,French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis ANRS | Marcy O.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Madec Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Chea S.,Cambodian Health Committee | And 13 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To analyze cases of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the CAMbodian Early versus Late Introduction of Antiretrovirals (CAMELIA) randomized trial designed to compare early (2 weeks) versus late (8 weeks) antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset in Cambodia (NCT00226434). METHODS: ART-naive adults with CD4 cell count of 200 cells/μl or less, newly diagnosed tuberculosis, and at least one follow-up visit after ART initiation were included in this analysis. Each case of suspected TB-IRIS was systematically validated by two physicians not involved in patients' management. Factors associated with occurrence of TB-IRIS were identified using the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Among 597 patients, 26% experienced TB-IRIS with an incidence rate of 37.9 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 32.4-44.4]. Main clinical manifestations included new or worsening lymphadenopathy (77.4%) and fever (68.4%). Chest radiograph revealed new or worsening abnormalities in 53.4%. Symptoms resolved in 95.5% of patients. Six deaths were directly related to TB-IRIS. Initiating ART early increased the risk of TB-IRIS by 2.61 (95% CI 1.84-3.70). Extrapulmonary or disseminated tuberculosis, CD4 cell count of 100 cells/μl or less, and HIV RNA concentration more than 6 log10 copies/ml were also significantly associated with higher risk of TB-IRIS. CONCLUSION: Shortening the delay between tuberculosis treatment onset and ART initiation to 2 weeks was associated with an increased risk of developing TB-IRIS. However, TB-IRIS was generally easily manageable. Given the marked reported survival advantage of early ART initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset, these data indicate that fear of TB-IRIS should not be an impediment to early ART in adults with advanced immunodeficiency in resource-limited, high burden settings. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Borand L.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Laureillard D.,ANRS | Madec Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Chou M.,University of Health Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2013

Background: The optimal dose of efavirenz for HIV-infected patients receiving a tuberculosis regimen including rifampicin remains debated, especially for subjects weighing over 50 kg. To address this issue, we measured plasma efavirenz concentrations from Cambodian adults with tuberculosis enrolled in the CAMELIA randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01300481) 6 weeks after the onset of antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Efavirenz concentrations and proportions of patients with concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml were compared across patient body weight below or above 50 kg using a Student's t-test and a χ2 test, respectively. Factors associated with efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml were identified by logistic regression analysis. Logistic regression analysis was also performed to check if efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml were associated with virological failure. Results: Plasma efavirenz concentrations were higher in the 332 patients who weighed <50 kg compared with the 150 who weighed ≥50 kg (median [IQR] 2,859 [1,787-4,749] and 2,060 [1,425-3,575] ng/ml, respectively; P=0.02). However, the proportion of patients with efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml was not different between those weighing less than or more than 50 kg (6% and 10%, respectively; P=0.13) and a body weight above 50 kg was not associated with a higher risk of plasma efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml. When plasma efavirenz concentrations below 1,000 ng/ml were present, they were not associated with virological failure. Conclusions: The current WHO guidelines recommending 600 mg efavirenz daily irrespective of patient's body weight remains a safe and effective approach to treating coinfected adults needing simultaneous tuberculosis and HIV therapy. ©2013 International Medical Press. Source

Pean P.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Nerrienet E.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | Madec Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Borand L.,Institute Pasteur in Cambodia | And 10 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a common and potentially serious complication occurring in HIV-infected patients being treated for tuberculosis (TB) using combined antiretroviral treatment. A role of adaptive immunity has been suggested in the onset of IRIS, whereas the role of natural killer (NK) cells has not yet been explored. The present study sought to examine the involvement of NK cells in the onset of IRIS in HIV-infected patients with TB and to identify predictive markers of IRIS. A total of 128 HIV-infected patients with TB from the Cambodian Early versus Late Introduction of Antiretroviral Drugs (CAMELIA) trial were enrolled in Cambodia. Thirty-seven of the 128 patients developed IRIS. At inclusion, patients had low CD4 cell counts (27 cells/mm 3) and high plasma viral load (5.76 and 5.50 log/mL in IRIS and non-IRIS patients, respectively). At baseline, NK-cell degranulation capacity was significantly higher in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients (9.6% vs 6.38%, P < .005). At IRIS onset, degranulation capacity did not differ between patients, whereas activating receptor expression was lower in IRIS patients. Patients with degranulation levels > 10.84% had a higher risk of IRIS (P = .002 by log-rank test). Degranulation level at baseline was the most important IRIS predictor (hazard ratio = 4.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.60-12.16). We conclude that NK-degranulation levels identify higher IRIS risk in HIV-infected patients with TB. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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