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Dekany R.,Caltech Optical Observatories
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

Experience with the current generation of astronomical single laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) systems has demonstrated system performance that is often limited by residual tip-tilt errors induced by the paucity of bright tip-tilt natural guide stars (NGS). To overcome this limitation, we are developing a new generation of tip-tilt sensors that will operate at near-infrared wavelengths where the NGS is sharpened to the diffraction limit. To optimize performance, single LGS AO systems utilizing sharpened tip-tilt NGS should generally not point their LGS directly toward their science target. Rather, optimal performance for wide sky coverage is obtained by offsetting LGS pointing along a radius connecting the science target and the tip-tilt NGS. We demonstrate that determination of the jointly optimized LGS pointing angle and tip-tilt wavefront sensor (WFS) integration time can improve performance metrics by factors of several, particularly for faintest NGS operation. We find the LGS offset should be as much as 1/2 the distance to the NGS to maximize Strehl ratio at near-infrared wavelengths and ≈ 1/4 the distance to the NGS to maximize ensquared energy, with lesser off-pointing for brighter NGS. Future AO systems may benefit from predictive determination of optimal LGS offsetting, based upon changing atmospheric conditions and observational geometries. © 2010 SPIE. Source


Dos Santos J.B.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Astrofisica | De Oliveira A.C.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Astrofisica | Gunn J.,Princeton University | De Oliveira L.S.,OIO Oliveira Instrumentacao Optica Ltda. SP | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Focal Ration Degradation (FRD) is a change in light's angular distribution caused by fiber optics. FRD is important to fiber-fed, spectroscopic astronomical systems because it can cause loss of signal, degradation in spectral resolution, or increased complexity in spectrograph design. Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA) has developed a system that can accurately and precisely measures FRD, using an absolute method that can also measure fiber throughput. This paper describes the metrology system and shows measurements of Polymicro's fiber FBP129168190, FBP127165190 and Fujikura fiber 128170190. Although the FRD of the two fibers are low and similar to one another, it is very important to know the exact characteristics of these fibers since both will be used in the construction of FOCCoS (Fiber Optical Cable and Connectors System) for PFS (Prime Focus Spectrograph) to be installed at the Subaru telescope. © 2014 SPIE. Source


Phillips A.C.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Bauman B.J.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory | Larkin J.E.,University of California at Los Angeles | Moore A.M.,Caltech Optical Observatories | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

We present a conceptual design for the atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC) for TMT's Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The severe requirements of this ADC are reviewed, as are limitations to observing caused by uncorrectable atmospheric effects. The requirement of residual dispersion less than 1 milliarcsecond can be met with certain glass combinations. The design decisions are discussed and the performance of the design ADC is described. Alternative options and their performance tradeoffs are also presented. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Source


Travouillon T.,TMT Observatory Corporation | Schock M.,TMT Observatory Corporation | Schock M.,Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics | Els S.,TMT Observatory Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2011

In this two-part study, we investigate the usefulness of Sodars as part of a large instrument suite for the study of high mountains in the site selection process of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). In this first part, we describe the reproducibility of the measurements and the comparability of results from different sites for data taken with two complementary Sodar models: the XFAS and SFAS models manufactured by Scintec Inc. To this end, a cross-calibration campaign was conducted on two of the sites comparing both the wind speeds and the optical turbulence measurements of the different units. The specific set-up conditions and the low atmospheric pressure require us to make a compromise between the amount of data available for statistics and the quality of the data. For the comparison of the wind speed, results from the same models show a systematic difference of 12 and 9% for the XFAS and SFAS, respectively. The scatter between individual measurements, which includes instrumental, set-up and statistical fluctuation contributions, was found to be 21 and 23%. For optical turbulence, the respective values are 6 and 3% for the systematic difference and 46 and 67% for the scatter. These results show that Sodars can be useful tools for astronomical site testing for projects such as the TMT. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Travouillon T.,TMT Observatory Corporation | Schock M.,TMT Observatory Corporation | Schock M.,Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics | Els S.,TMT Observatory Corporation | And 2 more authors.
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2011

In the second part of this study, we compare both the wind speed and turbulence given by the Sodars with independent sets of measurements. In the case of the wind speed we compare the lowest Sodar data bin with a sonic anemometer located on a 7-m tower. The agreement between the two instruments was convincing with a regression slope near unity. The integrated turbulence measurements of the Sodars are compared with those obtained with a combined multi-aperture scintillation sensor and differential image motion monitor (MASS/DIMM) unit. It was found that the Sodars are indeed capable of quantitatively measuring optical turbulence, and agree with the MASS/DIMM measurements with a correlation coefficient of approximately 80% and a regression slope within 10% of unity. Additional acoustic noise in the Sodar data was identified using this comparison and removed from the data. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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