CalRecovery Inc.

Concord, CA, United States

CalRecovery Inc.

Concord, CA, United States
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Garcia-Maraver A.,University of Granada | Rodriguez M.L.,University of Granada | Serrano-Bernardo F.,University of Granada | Diaz L.F.,CalRecovery Inc. | Zamorano M.,University of Granada
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2015

In the Mediterranean areas of southwest Europe, olive tree pruning residues generate substantial amounts of residual biomass. Pelleting this biomass supposes the conversion of a residue difficult to manage into an energy resource especially indicated to be used in the areas where these groves exist. The final quality of pellets varies depending on the raw material properties and the manufacturing process. Consequently, in this paper the raw materialswere chemically characterized before pelletization under different conditions in a semi-industrial pellet mill. In addition, the physical and mechanical parameters of the pellets produced were analyzed in order to determine the optimum pelletization conditions for each raw material by using IBM SPSS Statistics 20 software and considering the European requirements for non-industrial pellets. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the main densification parameters (moisture content, compression and temperature) and rawmaterial (leaves, pruning, and wood) on the quality properties of pellets from the different olive tree pruning residues. In general, low moisture content (9%), short compression lengths (20-24 mm) and temperatures higher than 40 °C were the best pelleting conditions for the residual biomass from olive trees, although these parameters varied between the raw materials analyzed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Maraver A.,University of Granada | Zamorano M.,University of Granada | Ramos-Ridao A.,University of Granada | Diaz L.F.,CalRecovery Inc.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

As fossil fuels are not only a limited resource, but also contribute to global warming, a transition towards a more sustainable energy supply is urgently needed. Therefore, today's environmental policies are largely devoted to fostering the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies. One important aspect of this transition is the increased use of biomass to generate renewable energy. Agricultural residues are produced in huge amounts worldwide, and most of this residue is composed of biomass that can be used for energy generation. Consequently, converting this residue into energy can increase the value of waste materials and reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal. This paper analyses the situation of biomass energy resources in Andalusia, an autonomous community in the south of Spain. More specifically, biomass is the renewable source which most contributes to Andalusian energy infrastructure. The residual biomass produced in the olive sector is the result of the large quantity of olive groves and olive oil manufacturers that generate byproducts with a potentially high energy content. The generation of agricultural and industrial residues from the olive sector produced in Andalusia is an important source of different types of residual biomass that are suitable for thermal and electric energy since they reduce the negative environmental effects of emissions from fossil fuels, such as the production of carbon dioxide. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Maraver A.,University of Granada | Salvachua D.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Martinez M.J.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Diaz L.F.,CalRecovery Inc. | Zamorano M.,University of Granada
Waste Management | Year: 2013

The heterogeneity of biomass makes it difficult if not impossible to make sweeping generalizations concerning thermochemical treatment systems and the optimal equipment to be used in them. Chemical differences in the structural components of the biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) have a direct impact on its chemical reactivity. The aim of this research was to study the influence of the organic components of the raw material from olive trees (leaves, pruning residues, and wood) in the combustion behavior of this biomass, as well as to find the component responsible for the higher ash content of olive leaves. Accordingly, the study used a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor the different states and complex transitions that occurred in the biomass as the temperature varied. The decomposition rates of the different samples were analyzed in order to establish a link between each combustion phase and the composition of the raw materials. Two methods were used to determine the hemicellulose and cellulose contents of biomass from olive trees. Significant differences among the results obtained by the different methods were observed, as well as important variations regarding the chemical composition and consequently the thermal behavior of the raw materials tested. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Said N.,University of Granada | Said N.,Zagazig University | El-Shatoury S.A.,Suez Canal University | Diaz L.F.,CalRecovery Inc. | Zamorano M.,University of Granada
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

The utilization of biomass as a renewable source of energy is important from the energetic as well as the environmental viewpoint. It can reduce the rate of fossil fuel depletion caused by the rapid increase in energy consumption. This paper presents an estimation of the biomass and its potential energy in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included: agricultural residues (dedicated bioenergy crop residues), municipal solid wastes, animal wastes, and sewage sludge. The potential biomass quantity and its theoretical energy content were computed according to statistical reports, literature reviews, and personal investigations. The results show that Egypt produces a considerable amount of biomass with a total theoretical energy content of 416.9×1015 J. The dry biomass produced from bioenergy crop residue sources has been estimated at about 12.33 million tons/year, of which 63.75% is produced from rice straw. This source represents the highest percentage (44.6%) of the total theoretical potential energy in Egypt, followed by municipal solid wastes, which could produce 41.7% from an annual amount of 34.6 million tons. Meanwhile, the rest of the total theoretical potential energy could be produced from animal and sewage wastes. The estimated biomass with its considerable potential energy content represents an important renewable energy source in Egypt. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Perkoulidis G.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Karagiannidis A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Kontogianni S.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Diaz L.F.,CalRecovery Inc.
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2011

Most developing countries face particular fundamental difficulties in relation to solid waste management, which has evolved into a number of issues with continuously increasing complexity due to limited resources and increasing quantities and hazardousness, limited or conflicting information to make reliable management decisions, un-established regulatory framework, lack of realistic long-term planning, lack of proper disposal sites, etc. Several developing countries are still lacking basic infrastructure with not all produced waste even collected by the existing systems. The present paper addresses, specifies, classifies and discusses the problems faced by developing countries on waste management, critically addresses frequently encountered mistakes, summarises best practices, identifies peculiarities and sets the basis for locally suitable waste management solutions in developing countries. Having Millennium Development Goals as an entry point, promotion of low-technology options and implementation of projects via the Clean Development Mechanism, are also analysed in the frame of particular needs and local socio-cultural parameters as key issues associated with rationalising solid waste management in developing countries.

Marmolejo L.F.,University of Valle | Diaz L.F.,CalRecovery Inc. | Torres P.,University of Valle | Garcia M.,University of Valle | And 4 more authors.
Sustainability | Year: 2010

Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP). The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as "garbage", the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region. © 2010 by the authors.

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