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Östermalm, Sweden

Engstrom-Ost J.,Novia University of Applied Sciences | Rasic I.S.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Brutemark A.,Novia University of Applied Sciences | Brutemark A.,University of Helsinki | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Reviews | Year: 2015

Management actions against invasive species are usually most efficient during early stages of invasion. Monitoring for early detection is therefore part of many management plans. However, if monitoring efforts do not match suitable habitat areas, detecting the initial stages of an invasion may fail. We highlight this mismatch by assessing which areas have suitable habitats for an invasion of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in the Baltic Sea, and compare these with the areas that are currently monitored for algal blooms. Establishment of this potential toxin-producer in the Baltic Sea could have serious socio-economic consequences for tourism and recreation, as well as fisheries and aquaculture in the coastal regions. We estimate the coastal areas of the eastern Gulf of Finland as the most suitable area for establishment because of low salinity and high summer seawater surface temperatures. The species is not yet reported in the Baltic Sea, but in the suitable-habitat areas indicated by our assessment, very little monitoring is currently being done. We suggest several lines of research and monitoring to increase the probability of early detection and better predictions for the future distribution of the species. © 2015 Published by NRC Research Press.

Vehmaa A.,Novia University of Applied Sciences | Vehmaa A.,University of Helsinki | Hogfors H.,University of Stockholm | Gorokhova E.,University of Stockholm | And 5 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Acidification together with higher temperature reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Higher temperature also decreased egg viability, nauplii development, and oxidative status. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability, giving no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by the presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of increased temperature and decreased pH on the copepod recruitment. The interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria on copepods highlight the importance of testing combined effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses. The combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria are studied on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. As zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. The found interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria highlight the importance of testing joint effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Holliland P.B.,University of Stockholm | Holmborn T.,Calluna AB | Gorokhova E.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2012

In the Baltic Sea, the predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi is a non-indigenous species that has potential to compete for mesozooplankton with pelagic zooplanktivorous fish. To understand the extent of diet overlap with these fishes in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper, we studied the feeding of C. pengoi using stable 13C and 15N isotope signatures of the predator and possible prey. Feasible combinations of sources were estimated in two ways: (i) with the IsoSource mixing model, and (ii) temporal-tracking analysis. Further, contribution of different prey was related to ambient zooplankton composition to gauge selectivity. The modelling results indicate that C. pengoi is an opportunistic generalist predator with a positive selection towards older copepodites (CIVVI) of Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, which also have the greatest contribution to its diet. Positive selection towards podonid Cladocera is also likely. In contrast, evidence for extensive feeding on microzooplankton was inconclusive, and bosminids were not found to be an important prey in the zooplankton assemblages studied. As the derived diet of C. pengoi overlaps greatly with that of zooplanktivorous fish, food competition between these zooplanktivores is possible. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Hogfors H.,University of Stockholm | Hogfors H.,AquaBiota Water Research | Motwani N.H.,University of Stockholm | Hajdu S.,University of Stockholm | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplanktoncyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth environment for the copepod nauplii. © 2014 Hogfors et al.

Pulina S.,University of Cagliari | Brutemark A.,Calluna AB | Suikkanen S.,Finnish Environment Institute | Padedda B.M.,University of Sassari | And 6 more authors.
Web Ecology | Year: 2016

Predicting the responses of organisms is a complex challenge especially when water temperature is expected to increase over the coming decades, as a result of global warming. In this work the effects of warming on phytoplankton communities were investigated. An indoor experiment was performed, where water from a Mediterranean lagoon was incubated at different temperatures. Three treatments were applied in triplicate incubation units: the control (11 °C), 3 °C increase (14 °C), and 6 °C increase (17 °C). Our results showed significant effects by warming on phytoplankton. The abundance of relatively smaller taxa (Chlorella sp. and Planktothrix agardhii-rubescens group) increased at 17 °C, whereas the abundance of relatively larger species (Cyclotella sp. and Thalassiosira sp.) decreased, compared with the control. This shift towards smaller taxa resulted in a higher total biomass but lower chlorophyll a concentrations at the highest temperature. © 2016 Author(s).

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