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Taylor J.H.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Taylor J.H.,Callitrichid Research Center | Mustoe A.C.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Mustoe A.C.,Callitrichid Research Center | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2014

Psychosocial stressors activate two distinct stress-response systems, a central, behavioral response, and a peripheral, endocrine response. Both behavioral and endocrine responses to stressors are subject to individual and developmental variables, but it is not known whether stressor induced behaviors are stable across development, and how they correspond with changes in the endocrine component of the stress response. We characterized the development and stability of behavioral responses to a mild psychosocial stressor in marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi), and assessed the degree to which the behavioral and endocrine stress-response systems were co-activated. The behavioral response to stressors was stable within individuals, but only some stressor-induced behaviors changed as the monkeys developed. Overall, there was more variability in the development of behavioral responses compared to stress-induced endocrine profiles found previously [French et al., 2012. Horm Behav 61:196-203]. In young marmosets, only increased alarm calling was correlated with increased cortisol reactivity, and in older marmosets increased cage manipulations and motor activity were associated with poorer post-stressor cortisol regulation. Because these relationships were so few, we conclude that while the behavioral and endocrine systems follow a similar developmental trajectory, each system maintains a level of independence. Furthermore, the relationship between stressor-induced behaviors and HPA activity changes across development. Am. J. Primatol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Taylor J.H.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Taylor J.H.,Callitrichid Research Center | Mustoe A.C.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Mustoe A.C.,Callitrichid Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2015

The relationships that offspring develop with caregivers can exert a powerful influence on behavior and physiology, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In many mammalian species, offspring-caregiver relationships are largely limited to interactions with mother. Marmoset monkeys receive care in early life from multiple classes of caregivers in addition to the mother, including fathers and siblings. We evaluated whether affiliative social interactions with family members in marmosets were associated with differences in cortisol reactivity to a short-term social separation stressor, and whether these variations in affiliative interactions upon reunion predicted how well marmosets subsequently regulated HPA axis function after cessation of the stressor. Marmosets were separated from the family for 8. h at three developmental time points (6-, 12-, and 18-months of age), and interactions of the separated marmoset with the family group were recorded during reunion. Urinary cortisol was measured prior to social separation, every 2. h during the separation, and on the morning after separation. Heightened cortisol reactivity during social separation did not predict affiliative social behavior upon reunion but higher rates of grooming and play behavior predicted enhanced HPA regulation. Marmosets with higher rates of grooming and play with family members upon reunion had post-stress cortisol levels closer to preseparation baseline than marmosets with lower rates of affiliative reunion behavior. Combined with previous research showing the early programming effects of social interactions with caregivers, as well as the buffering effect of a close social partner during stress, the current study highlights the high degree of behavioral and HPA adaptability to social stressors across development in marmoset monkeys. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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