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Canary Islands, Spain

Crawford D.J.,University of Kansas | Anderson G.J.,University of Connecticut | Silva L.B.,University of The Azores | de Sequeira M.M.,University of Madeira | And 4 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Plants on oceanic islands often originate from self-compatible (SC) colonizers capable of seed set by self-fertilization. This fact is supported by empirical studies, and is rooted in the hypothesis that one (or few) individuals could find a sexual population, whereas two or more would be required if the colonizers were self-incompatible (SI). However, a SC colonizer would have lower heterozygosity than SI colonizers, which could limit radiation and diversification of lineages following establishment. Limited evidence suggests that several species-rich island lineages in the family Asteraceae originated from SI colonizers with some “leakiness” (pseudo-self-compatibility, PSC) such that some self-seed could be produced. This study of Tolpis (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia provides first reports of the breeding system in species from the Azores and Madeira, and additional insights into variation in Canary Islands. Tolpis from the Azores and Madeira are predominately SI but with PSC. This study suggests that the breeding systems of the ancestors were either PSC, possibly from a single colonizer, or from SI colonizers by multiple disseminules either from a single or multiple dispersals. Long-distance colonists capable of PSC combine the advantages of reproductive assurance (via selfing) in the establishment of sexual populations from even a single colonizer with the higher heterozygosity resulting from its origin from an outcrossed source population. Evolution of Tolpis on the Canaries and Madeira has generated diversity in breeding systems, including the origin of SC. Macaronesian Tolpis is an excellent system for studying breeding system evolution in a small, diverse lineage. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Kelly J.K.,200 Sunnyside Ave | Santos-Guerra A.,Calle Guaidil 16 | Menezes de Sequeira M.,University of Madeira | Moura M.,University of The Azores
American journal of botany | Year: 2015

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Endemic plants on oceanic islands have long served as model systems for studying patterns and processes of evolution. However, phylogenetic studies of island plants frequently illustrate a decoupling of molecular divergence and ecological/morphological diversity, resulting in phylogenies lacking the resolution required to interpret patterns of evolution in a phylogenetic context. The current study uses the primarily Macaronesian flowering plant genus Tolpis to illustrate the utility of multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG) for resolving relationships at relatively deep (among archipelagos) and very shallow (within archipelagos) nodes in this small, yet diverse insular plant lineage that had not been resolved with other molecular markers.METHODS: Genomic libraries for 27 accessions of Macaronesian Tolpis were generated for genotyping individuals using MSG, a form of reduced-representation sequencing, similar to restriction-site-associated DNA markers (RADseq). The resulting data files were processed using the program pyRAD, which clusters MSG loci within and between samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the aligned data matrix were conducted using RAxML.KEY RESULTS: Analysis of MSG data recovered a highly resolved phylogeny with generally strong support, including the first robust inference of relationships within the highly diverse Canary Island clade of Tolpis.CONCLUSIONS: The current study illustrates the utility of MSG data for resolving relationships in lineages that have undergone recent, rapid diversification resulting in extensive ecological and morphological diversity. We suggest that a similar approach may prove generally useful for other rapid plant radiations where resolving phylogeny has been difficult. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

Romeiras M.M.,Tropical Research Institute IICT JBT | Romeiras M.M.,University of Lisbon | Duarte M.C.,Tropical Research Institute IICT JBT | Duarte M.C.,University of Porto | And 4 more authors.
Taxon | Year: 2014

This paper reviews the development of knowledge of the flora of the Cape Verde archipelago, the only portion of Macaronesia located in the tropics, from the discovery of the islands in the 15th century until the end of the 18th century. The first settlers of the islands came from Portugal and their accounts recorded that the dense forests and lush vegetation found in neighbouring regions of Africa were not present on these dry islands. Claims for John Kirckwood and Vespasien Robin collecting in the Cape Verdes during the 17th century are doubtful and it is likely that they refer to the Cape Verde promontory located in Senegal. Lotus jacobaeus (Fabaceae) is the earliest documented record for the endemic flora (year 1699). The first documented systematic plant hunting expedition was conducted by Johann R. Forster and his son George Forster during the second voyage of Captain Cook around the world. The Forsters visited Santiago on 14 August 1772, collected herbarium specimens, provided records for 39 species and described four new species based on this material. James Robertson and George Staunton also collected plant material in the Cape Verde Islands in the late 18th century. However, it was João da Silva Feijó who undertook the first extensive plant exploration of the archipelago between 1783 and 1789, under the patronage of the Portuguese government. His material was the basis for 14 new species descriptions made by Philip Barker Webb in 1849. The growth of knowledge of the Cape Verde flora contrasts markedly with that of the Canary Islands and Madeira, the floras of which were much more extensively documented by the mid-18th century. © International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) 2014.

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