Time filter

Source Type

Dhahbi J.M.,University of California at Riverside | Atamna H.,California University of Science and Medicine | Li R.,University of California at Riverside | Yamakawa A.,University of California at Riverside | And 4 more authors.
Genomics Insights | Year: 2016

In mammals, extracellular miRNAs circulate in biofluids as stable entities that are secreted by normal and diseased tissues, and can enter cells and regulate gene expression. Drosophila melanogaster is a proven system for the study of human diseases. They have an open circulatory system in which hemolymph (HL) circulates in direct contact with all internal organs, in a manner analogous to vertebrate blood plasma. Here, we show using deep sequencing that Drosophila HL contains RNase-resistant circulating miRNAs (HL-miRNAs). Limited subsets of body tissue miRNAs (BT-miRNAs) accumulated in HL, suggesting that they may be specifically released from cells or particularly stable in HL. Alternatively, they might arise from specific cells, such as hemocytes, that are in intimate contact with HL. Young and old flies accumulated unique populations of HL-miRNAs, suggesting that their accumulation is responsive to the physiological status of the fly. These HL-miRNAs in flies may function similar to the miRNAs circulating in mammalian biofluids. The discovery of these HL-miRNAs will provide a new venue for health and disease-related research in Drosophila. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited.


Atamna H.,California University of Science and Medicine | Atamna H.,The Commonwealth Medical College TCMC | Atamna W.,The Commonwealth Medical College TCMC | Al-Eyd G.,California University of Science and Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Redox Biology | Year: 2015

Methylene blue (MB) delays cellular senescence, induces complex-IV, and activates Keap1/Nrf2; however, the molecular link of these effects to MB is unclear. Since MB is redox-active, we investigated its effect on the NAD/NADH ratio in IMR90 cells. The transient increase in NAD/NADH observed in MB-treated cells triggered an investigation of the energy regulator AMPK. MB induced AMPK phosphorylation in a transient pattern, which was followed by the induction of PGC1α and SURF1: both are inducers of mitochondrial and complex-IV biogenesis. Subsequently MB-treated cells exhibited >100% increase in complex-IV activity and a 28% decline in cellular oxidants. The telomeres erosion rate was also significantly lower in MB-treated cells. A previous research suggested that the pattern of AMPK activation (i.e., chronic or transient) determines the AMPK effect on cell senescence. We identified that the anti-senescence activity of MB (transient activator) was 8-times higher than that of AICAR (chronic activator). Since MB lacked an effect on cell cycle, an MB-dependent change to cell cycle is unlikely to contribute to the anti-senescence activity. © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | University of California at Riverside and California University of Science and Medicine
Type: | Journal: Genomics insights | Year: 2016

In mammals, extracellular miRNAs circulate in biofluids as stable entities that are secreted by normal and diseased tissues, and can enter cells and regulate gene expression. Drosophila melanogaster is a proven system for the study of human diseases. They have an open circulatory system in which hemolymph (HL) circulates in direct contact with all internal organs, in a manner analogous to vertebrate blood plasma. Here, we show using deep sequencing that Drosophila HL contains RNase-resistant circulating miRNAs (HL-miRNAs). Limited subsets of body tissue miRNAs (BT-miRNAs) accumulated in HL, suggesting that they may be specifically released from cells or particularly stable in HL. Alternatively, they might arise from specific cells, such as hemocytes, that are in intimate contact with HL. Young and old flies accumulated unique populations of HL-miRNAs, suggesting that their accumulation is responsive to the physiological status of the fly. These HL-miRNAs in flies may function similar to the miRNAs circulating in mammalian biofluids. The discovery of these HL-miRNAs will provide a new venue for health and disease-related research in Drosophila.


PubMed | Tohoku University, California University of Science and Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Yokohama Rosai Hospital and Keio University
Type: | Journal: Molecular and cellular endocrinology | Year: 2016

We report a case of non-familial juvenile primary aldosteronism (PA). Super-selective adrenal venous sampling identified less aldosterone production in the right inferior adrenal segment than others. Bilateral adrenalectomy sparing the segment normalized blood pressure and improved PA. Both adrenals had similar histologies, consisting of a normal adrenal cortex and aldosterone synthase-positive hyperplasia/adenoma. An aldosterone-driving KCNJ5 mutation was detected in the lesions, but not in the histologically normal cortex. After taking into account that the two adrenal glands displayed a similar histological profile, as well as the fact that hyperplastic lesions in both glands exhibited a common KCNJ5 mutation, we conclude that the specific mutation may have occurred at an adrenal precursor mesodermal cell, at an early stage of development; its daughter cells were mixed with non-mutant cells and dispersed into both adrenal glands, resulting into a form of the condition known as genetic mosaicism.


PubMed | Kyushu University, Keio University, Hiroshima University, International University of Japan and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Molecular and cellular endocrinology | Year: 2016

Our group previously purified human and rat aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 and Cyp11b2, respectively) from their adrenals and verified that it is distinct from steroid 11-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 or Cyp11b1), the cortisol- or corticosterone-synthesizing enzyme. We now describe their distributions immunohistochemically with specific antibodies. In rats, there is layered functional zonation with the Cyp11b2-positive zona glomerulosa (ZG), Cyp11b1-positive zona fasciculata (ZF), and Cyp11b2/Cyp11b1-negative undifferentiated zone between the ZG and ZF. In human infants and children (<12 years old), the functional zonation is similar to that in rats. In adults, the adrenal cortex remodels and subcapsular aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) replace the continuous ZG layer. We recently reported possible APCC-to-APA transitional lesions (pAATLs) in 2 cases of unilateral multiple adrenocortical micro-nodules. In this review, we present 4 additional cases of primary aldosteronism, from which the extracted adrenals contain pAATLs, with results of next generation sequencing for these lesions. Immunohistochemistry for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 has become an important tool for the diagnosis of and research on adrenocortical pathological conditions and suggests that APCCs may be the origin of aldosterone-producing adenoma.


Nishimoto K.,Keio University | Nishimoto K.,The Mutual | Seki T.,California University of Science and Medicine | Kurihara I.,Keio University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Context: We previously reported that the human adrenal cortex remodels to form subcapsular aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs).SomeAPCCs were recently found to carry aldosteroneproducing adenoma (APA)-associated somatic mutations in ion channel/pump genes, which implied that APCCs produce aldosterone autonomously and are an origin of APA. However, there has been no report describing an APCC-to-APA transitional lesion. Case Description: A histological examination revealed unilateral multiple adrenocortical micronodules in the adrenals of two patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). Based on immunohistochemistry for aldosterone synthase, some of the micronodules were identified as possible APCC-to-APA transitional lesions (pAATLs; a tentative term used in this manuscript), which consisted of a subcapsular APCC-like portion and an inner micro-APA-like (mAPA-like) portion without an apparent histological border. GenomicDNAsamples prepared from pAATL histological sections were analyzed by next-generation sequencing for the known APA-associated mutations. The mAPA-like portions from two of the three large pAATLs examined harbored mutations (KCNJ5 [p.G151R] in pAATL 3 and ATP1A1 [p.L337M] in pAATL 7), whereas their corresponding APCC-like portions did not, suggesting their role in the formation of mAPA. Another lesion carried novel mutations in ATP1A1 (p.Ile322-Ile325del and p.Ile327Ser) in both the mAPA-like and APCC-like portions, thereby supporting these portions having a clonal origin. Conclusion: A novel aldosterone-producing pathology, pAATL that causes unilateral PA, was detected in the adrenals of two patients. Next-generation sequencing analyses of the large pAATLs suggested that the introduction of APA-associated mutations in the ion channel/pump genes may be involved in the development of mAPA from existing APCCs. Copyright © 2016 by the Endocrine Society.


Kunasegaran T.,University of Malaya | Mustafa M.R.,University of Malaya | Murugan D.D.,University of Malaya | Achike F.I.,California University of Science and Medicine
Biochimie | Year: 2016

This study investigated the effects of combined minimal concentrations of quercetin and pioglitazone on angiotensin II-induced contraction of the aorta from fructose-streptozotocin (F-STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats and the possible role of superoxide anions (O2 -) and nitric oxide (NO) in their potential therapeutic interaction. Contractile responses to Ang II of aortic rings from Sprague-Dawley (SD) and F-STZ rats were tested following pre-incubation of the tissues in the vehicle (DMSO; 0.05%), quercetin (Q, 0.1 μM), pioglitazone (P, 0.1 μM) or their combination (P + Q; 0.1 μM each). The amount of superoxide anion was evaluated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dihydroethidium fluorescence, and NO by assay of total nitrate/nitrite, and 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2′,7′-Difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate. The synergistic reduction of Ang II-induced contraction of diabetic but not normal aorta with minimally effective concentrations of P + Q occurs through inhibiting O2 - and increasing NO bioavailability. This finding opens the possibility of maximal vascular protective/antidiabetic effects with low dose pioglitazone combined with quercetin, thus minimizing the risk of adverse effects. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.


Nishimoto K.,International University of Japan | Nishimoto K.,Keio University | Seki T.,California University of Science and Medicine | Hayashi Y.,Keio University | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2016

Background. The immunohistochemical detection of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) has enabled the identification of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) in the subcapsular portion of the human adult adrenal cortex. We hypothesized that adrenals have layered zonation in early postnatal stages and are remodeled to possess APCCs over time. Purposes. To investigate changes in human adrenocortical zonation with age. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed adrenal tissues prepared from 33 autopsied patients aged between 0 and 50 years. They were immunostained for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1. The percentage of APCC areas over the whole adrenal area (AA/WAA, %) and the number of APCCs (NOA, APCCs/mm2) were calculated by four examiners. Average values were used in statistical analyses. Results. Adrenals under 11 years old had layered zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF) without apparent APCCs. Some adrenals had an unstained (CYP11B2/CYP11B1-negative) layer between ZG and ZF, resembling the rat undifferentiated cell zone. Average AA/WAA and NOA correlated with age, suggesting that APCC development is associated with aging. Possible APCC-to-APA transitional lesions were incidentally identified in two adult adrenals. Conclusions. The adrenal cortex with layered zonation remodels to possess APCCs over time. APCC generation may be associated with hypertension in adults. © 2016 Koshiro Nishimoto et al.


PubMed | California University of Science and Medicine and University of Malaya
Type: | Journal: Biochimie | Year: 2016

This study investigated the effects of combined minimal concentrations of quercetin and pioglitazone on angiotensin II-induced contraction of the aorta from fructose-streptozotocin (F-STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats and the possible role of superoxide anions (O2(-)) and nitric oxide (NO) in their potential therapeutic interaction. Contractile responses to Ang II of aortic rings from Sprague-Dawley (SD) and F-STZ rats were tested following pre-incubation of the tissues in the vehicle (DMSO; 0.05%), quercetin (Q, 0.1M), pioglitazone (P, 0.1M) or their combination (P+Q; 0.1M each). The amount of superoxide anion was evaluated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dihydroethidium fluorescence, and NO by assay of total nitrate/nitrite, and 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2,7-Difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) diacetate. The synergistic reduction of Ang II-induced contraction of diabetic but not normal aorta with minimally effective concentrations of P+Q occurs through inhibiting O2(-) and increasing NO bioavailability. This finding opens the possibility of maximal vascular protective/antidiabetic effects with low dose pioglitazone combined with quercetin, thus minimizing the risk of adverse effects.

Loading California University of Science and Medicine collaborators
Loading California University of Science and Medicine collaborators