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Sacramento, CA, United States

Phillips B.M.,University of California at Davis | Anderson B.S.,University of California at Davis | Voorhees J.P.,University of California at Davis | Hunt J.W.,University of California at Davis | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pesticide Science | Year: 2010

As part of a statewide assessment of pyrethroid pesticides and sediment toxicity in urban creeks, sites throughout California were screened, and thirty were chosen to evaluate the potential of pyrethroids to contribute to biological impacts. Sediment samples from four sites containing varied concentrations of pyrethroids were investigated using toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) to determine causes of toxicity. Treatments were conducted on both whole sediment and interstitial water to determine the role of pyrethroids in the observed toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and to evaluate TIE method performance. Whole sediment treatments included the addition of binding resins for organics and metals, and specific treatments designed to alter pyrethroid toxicity, including the addition of carboxylesterase enzyme, the addition of piperonyl butoxide (a pyrethroid synergist), and the testing of sediments at two temperatures. Interstitial water TIEs included solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns to reduce and return toxicity caused by organics and metals, as well as the treatments specific to pyrethroids. Resin and SPE column treatments characterized the causes of toxicity as organic compounds. Results of pyrethroid-specific treatments in whole sediment were variable, but similar treatments in interstitial water demonstrated pyrethroids were contributing to toxicity. Measured pyrethroid concentrations in whole sediment and interstitial water SPE extracts were high enough to have contributed to toxicity. Using both whole sediment and interstitial water TIEs and chemical analysis provided multiple lines of evidence that pyrethroids contributed to toxicity. © Pesticide Science Society of Japan.

Null S.E.,Utah State University | Ligare S.T.,California State Water Resources Control Board | Viers J.H.,University of California at Davis
Journal of the American Water Resources Association | Year: 2013

This article provides a method for examining mesoscale water quality objectives downstream of dams with anticipated climate change using a multimodel approach. Coldwater habitat for species such as trout and salmon has been reduced by water regulation, dam building, and land use change that alter stream temperatures. Climate change is an additional threat. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact water temperatures below dams and affect downstream ecology. We model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations (assuming that operations remain unchanged through time) of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with climate-forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage water temperatures for coldwater habitat. All models are one dimensional and operate on a weekly timestep. Results are presented as water temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoirs release water that is cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with climate change. Stream temperatures are sensitive to changes in reservoir volume, elevation, and latitude. Our approach is presented as a proof of concept study to evaluate reservoir regulation effects on stream temperatures and coldwater habitat with climate change. © 2013 American Water Resources Association.

Moore M.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Denton D.L.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Cooper C.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Wrysinski J.,Yolo County Resource Conservation District | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2011

Irrigation and storm water runoff from agricultural fields has the potential to cause impairment to downstream aquatic receiving systems. Over the last several years, scientists have discovered the benefit of using edge-of-field practices, such as vegetated agricultural drainage ditches, in the mitigation of pesticides and sediment. After demonstrating this practice's feasibility in California, field trials were initiated to document irrigation runoff pesticide mitigation in California alfalfa and tomato fields. In the alfalfa field, chlorpyrifos concentration was decreased by 20% from the inflow to the ditch outflow. Thirty-two percent of the measured chlorpyrifos mass was associated with ditch plant material. In the tomato field, permethrin concentration was decreased by 67% and there was a 35% reduction in suspended sediment concentration from inflow to the ditch outflow. When surface water was not present in the ditch systems, the sediment was a significant repository for pesticides. Based on the field trials, vegetated agricultural drainage ditches can be successfully used as part of a suite of management practices to reduce pesticide and sediment runoff into aquatic receiving systems. © 2011 SETAC.

Phillips B.M.,University of California at Davis | Anderson B.S.,University of California at Davis | Voorhees J.P.,University of California at Davis | Siegler K.,University of California at Davis | And 5 more authors.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2014

Pesticides are applied to state and local waterways in California to control insects such as mosquitoes, which are known to serve as a vector for West Nile Virus infection of humans. The California State Water Resources Control Board adopted a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General Permit to address the discharge to waters of the United States of pesticides resulting from adult and larval mosquito control. Because pesticides used in spray activities have the potential to cause toxicity to nontarget organisms in receiving waters, the current study was designed to determine whether toxicity testing provides additional, useful environmental risk information beyond chemical analysis in monitoring spray pesticide applications. Monitoring included a combination of aquatic toxicity tests and chemical analyses of receiving waters from agricultural, urban, and wetland habitats. The active ingredients monitored included the organophosphate pesticides malathion and naled, the pyrethroid pesticides etofenprox, permethrin, and sumithrin, pyrethrins, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Approximately 15% of the postapplication water samples were significantly toxic. Toxicity of half of these samples was attributed to the naled breakdown product dichlorvos. Toxicity of 2 other water samples likely occurred when PBO synergized the effects of pyrethroid pesticides that were likely present in the receiving system. Four of 43 postapplication sediment samples were significantly more toxic than their corresponding pre-application samples, but none of the observed toxicity was attributed to the application events. These results indicate that many of the spray pesticides used for adult mosquito control do not pose significant acute toxicity risk to invertebrates in receiving systems. In the case of naled in water, analysis of only the active ingredient underestimated potential impacts to the receiving system, because toxicity was attributed to the breakdown product, dichlorvos. Toxicity testing can provide useful risk information about unidentified, unmeasured toxicants or mixtures of toxicants. In this case, toxicity testing provided information that could lead to the inclusion of dichlorvos monitoring as a permit requirement. © 2014 SETAC.

Maruya K.A.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Dodder N.G.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Schaffner R.A.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Weisberg S.B.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | And 8 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2014

To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in California partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009-10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and current use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in California's coastal ecosystems, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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