San Bernardino, CA, United States
San Bernardino, CA, United States

California State University, San Bernardino, is a public university and one of the 23 general campuses of the California State University system. The main campus sits on 441 acres in the suburban University District of San Bernardino, California, United States, with a branch campus of 40 acres in Palm Desert, California, opened in 1986. In 2013, California State University, San Bernardino was named a 2014 Best College in the Western Region by The Princeton Review for the tenth straight year in a row, ranking CSUSB among the top 25 percent of universities across the nation. Back in 2011, California State University, San Bernardino’s College of Business and Public Administration was recognized by European CEO Magazine as one of the top 20 schools of business in the world and one of the world's 18 most innovative business schools.Founded in 1965, Cal State San Bernardino's enrollment annually tops 17,500.The university offers 138 types of Bachelor's degrees, 67 Master's degrees, one Doctoral degree , and 23 teaching credentials.CSUSB's sports teams are known as the Coyotes and play in the California Collegiate Athletic Association in the Division II of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The nickname was inspired by the coyotes that inhabit the area around the campus, which lies on the foothills of San Bernardino Mountains. The CSUSB women’s volleyball team has won six CCAA and three West Region titles. The men’s soccer team went to the NCAA Division II national semifinals, capturing the university’s first California Collegiate Athletic Association title. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 10, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

CLAREMONT, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Pitzer College names Sandra Vasquez as the new assistant vice president for student affairs and dean of students. Vasquez will begin her position on July 17, 2017. “I am truly honored and excited about this opportunity to work collaboratively with students, faculty and staff to advance student success initiatives at Pitzer,” Vasquez said. Vasquez currently serves as the associate dean of students and director of judicial affairs at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). Prior to UCSB, she served as the inaugural associate dean of students, director of student conduct and ethical development, and chair of the Campus Assessment Response and Education Team at California State University, San Bernardino. She has also held administrative positions at the University of Arkansas and the University of Southern California. “Dr. Vasquez made a strong impression on our community. She will be a great leader in the Office of Student Affairs and an asset for the entire Pitzer community,” said Brian Carlisle, vice president for student affairs and chair of the search committee. Vasquez was selected following an extensive national search led by a committee comprised of Pitzer students, faculty and staff. She and other finalists were brought to campus, where they made community presentations and met with members of the diversity committee, student leaders and student affairs staff. Vasquez earned a bachelor’s degree in liberal studies from California State University, Northridge, a master’s degree in higher education leadership from the University of Arkansas and a doctorate of education in educational leadership from the University of Southern California. She is also a graduate of the Management Development Program from the Harvard Graduate School of Education. The National Association of Student Personnel Administrators recognized her as the Region IV-West Outstanding New Professional of the Year, and she is a Hispanic Scholarship Fund Scholar. Pitzer College is a nationally top-ranked undergraduate liberal arts and sciences institution. A member of The Claremont Colleges, Pitzer offers a distinctive approach to a liberal arts education by linking intellectual inquiry with interdisciplinary studies, cultural immersion, social responsibility and community involvement. For more information, please visit www.pitzer.edu.


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

In California, each county has been given the opportunity to develop its own QRIS with funding being provided by the California State Preschool Program (CSPP) QRIS Block Grant, Infant Toddler QRIS Grant, and First 5 IMPACT grants. This comprehensive, countywide initiative is designed to help local early care and education professionals provide the highest quality early learning experiences possible. Research shows that the care and education children receive from ages 0-5 plays a significant role in early brain development with those who attend high quality early learning programs being more likely to graduate from high school and have successful careers. QRIS is specifically designed to support children, families, early learning professionals and the community as a whole to help children achieve those goals. And, while participating in this quality rating program, early educators receive resources and professional development opportunities to continuously improve and elevate the quality of the care they provide. San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools (SBCSS) and Child Care Resource Center (CCRC) are currently hosting information sessions for licensed child care centers and family child care programs serving children 0-5. During these sessions, early educators will learn about the benefits of enrolling which include: Over the next two years, First 5 San Bernardino County, SBCSS, CCRC, and California State University, San Bernardino will enroll 181 early learning programs into the Quality Start program. Ninety-two of those will be rated and all of them will be provided with quality improvement support. “We are excited to help the San Bernardino community with QRIS. Children learn so much in their first five years, high-quality child care and preschool helps them grow. It sets the foundation for success in school, work, and life. Over six million children under the age of three spend some or all of their day being cared for by someone other than their parents. We are a part of teaching what a quality program should look like,” said Michael Olenick, President and CEO of The Child Care Resource Center. “The informational sessions have been successful. It is encouraging to see the number of child care providers that want to participate not only for the success of the business but also for the benefits to children and families.” For more information on Quality Start, the importance of quality early learning, and our effort to educate parents and the community, contact 866-67-4KIDS or visit http://www.qualitystartsbc.org. About CCRC: CCRC manages programs to assist with issues such as finding and selecting child care and child care financial assistance to families. Children and families benefit from these programs, allowing parents to go to work and attend school, contribute to the economy and strengthen their families and the community. About First 5 San Bernardino: First 5 San Bernardino offers programs that promote, support, and improve the early development of children from the prenatal stage to five years of age, under the guidance of the Children and Families Commission for San Bernardino, and in collaboration with the community and agencies providing services to children. About SBCSS: The San Bernardino County Superintendent of Schools mission is to transform lives through education. County Schools delivers innovative and inspiring educational practices and direct instruction to alternative, juvenile court, special education and state preschool students. The office of the superintendent is committed to working in collaboration with school districts, other agencies, families and the community at-large, providing leadership, advocacy and services — always with the focus on students. About The Institute for Child Development and Family Relations (ICDFR) at Cal State San Bernardino: The ICDFR at CSUSB promotes the well-being of children and families in the inland region through our research, education and training, and direct services. We draw on the expertise of faculty who have dedicated their careers to the needs of children and the development of healthy families. For over 15 years, the ICDFR has trained hundreds of early childcare educators, offered science-based parenting training for parents throughout the community, and provided high quality childcare at the Infant Toddler Lab School. ICDFR faculty and students also conduct cutting edge research around children, families, and relationships. We do all of this in partnership with numerous child and family agencies throughout the community.


- Mapletree intends to step up acquisition and development of this asset class, building on the portfolio of more than 50 Oakwood-branded properties globally LOS ANGELES and SINGAPORE, Feb. 16, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Mapletree Investments Pte Ltd ("Mapletree" or "the Group"), a leading real estate development, investment and capital management company, is pleased to announce that it has acquired Oakwood Worldwide ("Oakwood"), a premier global provider of corporate housing and serviced apartment solutions. The acquisition covers all of Oakwood's global operations. Mapletree also wishes to announce the appointment of Mr. Christopher Ahearn as Oakwood's Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") with immediate effect (please refer to the Annex for Mr. Ahearn's biography). Oakwood's Founder and Chairman Mr. Howard Ruby will assume the non-executive role of Chairman Emeritus at Oakwood, where he will serve in an advisory role to Oakwood on the corporate housing business. Mapletree's acquisition of Oakwood is part of its long-term strategy to strengthen its corporate housing and serviced apartment business. Currently, all of Mapletree's nine corporate housing and serviced apartment assets in the United States ("US") and Australia are managed under the Oakwood brand as part of a collaboration signed in 2014. The collaboration also saw Mapletree acquire a 49 percent stake in Oakwood's Asia Pacific operating arm, Oakwood Asia Pacific. Said Mr. Hiew Yoon Khong, Mapletree's Group Chief Executive Officer: "This acquisition is strategic and commercially significant to Mapletree. Our full ownership of Oakwood will allow us to enhance efficiencies and the growth momentum of our corporate housing and serviced apartment business. In addition, Oakwood is a reputable global brand and we intend to continue strengthening its presence. "Furthermore, Mapletree intends to step up the acquisition and development of corporate housing and serviced apartment assets that will add to our earnings streams and expand housing options available to Oakwood's clients and guests. We will be looking at markets across the US, Europe and Asia Pacific, which are also regions where Oakwood is a well-regarded brand." Said Mr. Howard Ruby, Chairman Emeritus of Oakwood: "It has been my very special privilege to lead this organization for 57 years. It gives me great pleasure to know that the company, the associates and our clients will be in good hands with Mapletree and CEO Christopher Ahearn at the helm. We have learned through our collaboration that Mapletree shares our key vision of growing and expanding the Oakwood brand globally and maintaining the high customer service standards for which we are known. Both companies have worked well together since 2014, and I am confident that will continue. I am very excited about the future of Oakwood as we embark on this new journey with Mapletree as the company's new owner." Mr. Ahearn, as Oakwood's new CEO, will draw from his vast experience in growing and improving the operating performance of companies, which he gained while serving as Senior Advisor to TPG Capital. He will also capitalise on the industry knowledge he acquired while serving as Oakwood's Senior Vice President of Sales and Marketing from 2005 to 2010. Said Mr. Ahearn, CEO of Oakwood: "I am delighted to be returning to Oakwood as the new CEO. Howard is a pioneer in this industry and I am honoured to have been entrusted to carry forth his legacy and lead the company into this new chapter under Mapletree's ownership. I look forward to working with our associates, the heart of our organization, to align and evolve Oakwood's global capabilities and innovative offerings in order to better meet the ever-changing needs of our clients and guests. We are committed to a seamless transition of ownership with minimal disruption to Oakwood's operations." Oakwood is the largest provider of corporate housing and serviced apartments globally with a presence in more than 95 countries. The company serves more than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies, and works with the 10 largest US relocation companies. In addition to a vast supply chain inventory, Oakwood manages a portfolio of more than 50 branded properties globally. In addition to the nine Mapletree properties operated by Oakwood (US and Australia), Mapletree is currently developing three serviced apartment properties in Japan and Vietnam as well as one other asset under development in the US, which will be managed by Oakwood Worldwide upon completion. Mapletree is a leading real estate development, investment and capital management company headquartered in Singapore. Its strategic focus is to invest in markets and real estate sectors with good growth potential. By combining its key strengths as a developer, an investor and a capital manager, the Group has established a track record of award-winning projects, and delivers consistent and high returns across real estate asset classes. Mapletree currently manages four Singapore-listed real estate investment trusts (REITs) and five private equity real estate funds, which hold a diverse portfolio of assets in Singapore and Asia Pacific. As at 31 December 2016, Mapletree owns and manages S$38.6 billion (~US$26.6 billion) of office, retail, logistics, industrial, residential, corporate housing and serviced apartment, and student housing properties. The Group's assets are located across 12 economies globally, namely Singapore, Australia, China, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, India, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea, the United Kingdom (UK), the United States (US) and Vietnam. To support its global operations, Mapletree has established an extensive network of offices in Singapore, Australia, China, Hong Kong SAR, India, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea, the UK, the US and Vietnam. In the US, Mapletree currently owns a portfolio of seven student accommodation assets located across six states, and eight Oakwood-branded corporate housing properties with more than 1,200 units. The corporate housing properties are situated in Silicon Valley, Raleigh, Los Angeles, Portland, Dallas and Seattle. For more information, please visit www.mapletree.com.sg. Oakwood Worldwide® is the premier provider of corporate housing and serviced apartment solutions through its well-known brands, Oakwood®, ExecuStay® and Insurance Housing Solutions™. With a presence in all 50 United States and more than 95 countries, the award- winning company provides move-in-ready furnished accommodations to meet the needs of global organizations, individual business travelers, insurance clients and leisure travelers alike. Oakwood Worldwide was founded in and continues to base its corporate headquarters in Los Angeles and operates regional headquarters in London, Phoenix and Singapore. For more information, please visit . Mr. Christopher Ahearn has more than 26 years of experience in the areas of consultancy, sales, marketing and operations across a broad range of industry sectors. In his last appointment, Mr. Ahearn was Senior Advisor for TPG Capital and worked on a variety of projects spanning multiple industry sectors to improve the operating performance of companies acquired by TPG Capital. Prior to that, Mr. Ahearn was Senior Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Oakwood Worldwide from 2005 to 2010. Mr. Ahearn has also held executive roles with FedEx Office, NowDocs and RR Donnelley, and worked with corporate boards and partnered with senior executive peers to drive initiatives that delivered improved business performance. Mr. Ahearn holds a bachelor's degree in Marketing from California State University, San Bernardino, the US.


LOS ANGELES and SINGAPORE, Feb. 17, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Mapletree Investments Pte Ltd ("Mapletree" or "the Group"), a leading real estate development, investment and capital management company, is pleased to announce that it has acquired Oakwood Worldwide ("Oakwood"), a premier global provider of corporate housing and serviced apartment solutions. The acquisition covers all of Oakwood's global operations. Mapletree also wishes to announce the appointment of Mr. Christopher Ahearn as Oakwood's Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") with immediate effect (please refer to the Annex for Mr. Ahearn's biography). Oakwood's Founder and Chairman Mr. Howard Ruby will assume the non-executive role of Chairman Emeritus at Oakwood, where he will serve in an advisory role to Oakwood on the corporate housing business. Mapletree's acquisition of Oakwood is part of its long-term strategy to strengthen its corporate housing and serviced apartment business. Currently, all of Mapletree's nine corporate housing and serviced apartment assets in the United States ("US") and Australia are managed under the Oakwood brand as part of a collaboration signed in 2014. The collaboration also saw Mapletree acquire a 49 percent stake in Oakwood's Asia Pacific operating arm, Oakwood Asia Pacific. Said Mr. Hiew Yoon Khong, Mapletree's Group Chief Executive Officer: "This acquisition is strategic and commercially significant to Mapletree. Our full ownership of Oakwood will allow us to enhance efficiencies and the growth momentum of our corporate housing and serviced apartment business. In addition, Oakwood is a reputable global brand and we intend to continue strengthening its presence. "Furthermore, Mapletree intends to step up the acquisition and development of corporate housing and serviced apartment assets that will add to our earnings streams and expand housing options available to Oakwood's clients and guests. We will be looking at markets across the US, Europe and Asia Pacific, which are also regions where Oakwood is a well-regarded brand." Said Mr. Howard Ruby, Chairman Emeritus of Oakwood: "It has been my very special privilege to lead this organization for 57 years. It gives me great pleasure to know that the company, the associates and our clients will be in good hands with Mapletree and CEO Christopher Ahearn at the helm. We have learned through our collaboration that Mapletree shares our key vision of growing and expanding the Oakwood brand globally and maintaining the high customer service standards for which we are known. Both companies have worked well together since 2014, and I am confident that will continue. I am very excited about the future of Oakwood as we embark on this new journey with Mapletree as the company's new owner." Mr. Ahearn, as Oakwood's new CEO, will draw from his vast experience in growing and improving the operating performance of companies, which he gained while serving as Senior Advisor to TPG Capital. He will also capitalise on the industry knowledge he acquired while serving as Oakwood's Senior Vice President of Sales and Marketing from 2005 to 2010. Said Mr. Ahearn, CEO of Oakwood: "I am delighted to be returning to Oakwood as the new CEO. Howard is a pioneer in this industry and I am honoured to have been entrusted to carry forth his legacy and lead the company into this new chapter under Mapletree's ownership. I look forward to working with our associates, the heart of our organization, to align and evolve Oakwood's global capabilities and innovative offerings in order to better meet the ever-changing needs of our clients and guests. We are committed to a seamless transition of ownership with minimal disruption to Oakwood's operations." Oakwood is the largest provider of corporate housing and serviced apartments globally with a presence in more than 95 countries. The company serves more than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies, and works with the 10 largest US relocation companies. In addition to a vast supply chain inventory, Oakwood manages a portfolio of more than 50 branded properties globally. In addition to the nine Mapletree properties operated by Oakwood (US and Australia), Mapletree is currently developing three serviced apartment properties in Japan and Vietnam as well as one other asset under development in the US, which will be managed by Oakwood Worldwide upon completion. Mapletree is a leading real estate development, investment and capital management company headquartered in Singapore. Its strategic focus is to invest in markets and real estate sectors with good growth potential. By combining its key strengths as a developer, an investor and a capital manager, the Group has established a track record of award-winning projects, and delivers consistent and high returns across real estate asset classes. Mapletree currently manages four Singapore-listed real estate investment trusts (REITs) and five private equity real estate funds, which hold a diverse portfolio of assets in Singapore and Asia Pacific. As at 31 December 2016, Mapletree owns and manages S$38.6 billion (~US$26.6 billion) of office, retail, logistics, industrial, residential, corporate housing and serviced apartment, and student housing properties. The Group's assets are located across 12 economies globally, namely Singapore, Australia, mainland China, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea, the United Kingdom (UK), the United States (US) and Vietnam. To support its global operations, Mapletree has established an extensive network of offices in Singapore, Australia, mainland China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea, the UK, the US and Vietnam. In the US, Mapletree currently owns a portfolio of seven student accommodation assets located across six states, and eight Oakwood-branded corporate housing properties with more than 1,200 units. The corporate housing properties are situated in Silicon Valley, Raleigh, Los Angeles, Portland, Dallas and Seattle. For more information, please visit www.mapletree.com.sg. Oakwood Worldwide® is the premier provider of corporate housing and serviced apartment solutions through its well-known brands, Oakwood®, ExecuStay® and Insurance Housing Solutions™. With a presence in all 50 United States and more than 95 countries, the award- winning company provides move-in-ready furnished accommodations to meet the needs of global organizations, individual business travelers, insurance clients and leisure travelers alike. Oakwood Worldwide was founded in and continues to base its corporate headquarters in Los Angeles and operates regional headquarters in London, Phoenix and Singapore. For more information, please visit . Mr. Christopher Ahearn has more than 26 years of experience in the areas of consultancy, sales, marketing and operations across a broad range of industry sectors. In his last appointment, Mr. Ahearn was Senior Advisor for TPG Capital and worked on a variety of projects spanning multiple industry sectors to improve the operating performance of companies acquired by TPG Capital. Prior to that, Mr. Ahearn was Senior Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Oakwood Worldwide from 2005 to 2010. Mr. Ahearn has also held executive roles with FedEx Office, NowDocs and RR Donnelley, and worked with corporate boards and partnered with senior executive peers to drive initiatives that delivered improved business performance. Mr. Ahearn holds a bachelor's degree in Marketing from California State University, San Bernardino, the US.


Ricco R.B.,California State University, San Bernardino | Overton W.F.,Temple University
Developmental Review | Year: 2011

Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence ←-→ Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory offers the most coherent and productive framework for integrating and explaining the sometimes conflicting findings on the development of deductive reasoning across the lifespan. This model invokes a distinction that is quite similar to, though not identical with, the system 2-system 1 dichotomy employed in other dual systems models. In addition, the Competence ←-→ Procedural processing model maintains the more specific distinction between algorithmic and reflective subsystems of system 2. In this account, the algorithmic system is represented as a kind of mental logic while the reflective system is the seat of practical and epistemic self-regulation, including emergent epistemic and metalogical norms. While the proposed systems of mind often appear as split-off component features in other dual systems models, relational developmental systems theory conceives of them as the highly complex and relationally integrated outcome of a self-organizing and self-regulating adaptive developmental process. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Jennings T.,California State University, San Bernardino
Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling | Year: 2014

The sexual orientation-related content of 60 school counselor preparation programs across 22 U.S. states is described. The findings include the percentage of curricular time devoted to sexual orientation-related topics, the specific sexual orientation-related topics addressed, and the locations of sexual orientation-related curriculum within programs (e.g., foundations, methods, and fieldwork/practica). The research also investigated any relationship between sexual orientation-related curriculum and faculty demographics and Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Education Programs (CACREP) accreditation. Findings and recommendations are addressed in light of CACREP and American School Counselor Association (ASCA) standards. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Lachausse R.G.,California State University, San Bernardino
Journal of American College Health | Year: 2012

Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group. Methods: Students completed baseline and follow-up surveys regarding their nutrition and physical activity behaviors, self-efficacy, stress, attitudes, and body weight. Results: Compared with the on-campus course and a comparison group, the MSB-Nutrition program increased fruit and vegetable consumption, reduced stress, and increased fruit and vegetable self-efficacy but had no significant effect on students exercise self-efficacy, exercise behavior, or weight loss. Conclusions: The MSB-Nutrition program was effective in changing students nutrition behaviors but had no effect on physical activity behaviors or weight loss. Suggestions for improving Internet-based interventions aimed at decreasing obesity rates among college students are offered. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Gau J.M.,California State University, San Bernardino
Policing | Year: 2010

Purpose: Prior research has established the importance of citizens' perceptions of procedural justice in determining their assessments of and satisfaction with police. The present study seeks to contribute to this literature in three ways. First, it aims to test for a link between perceived procedural justice and performance-based assessments of police officers' ability to control serious crime. Second, it aims to test this link using longitudinal data and controls for existing attitudes to ensure directional validity of the results. Finally, it aims to advance the literature by extending the study of personal experiences and process-based judgments to non-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach: The data were gathered using a panel design consisting of two surveys administered three years apart. The data are analyzed using ordinary least squares regression. Findings: The results support the hypothesis that citizens' perceived procedural justice during their personal contact with officers significantly predicts their evaluations of the ability of police to keep their communities safe from serious violence. The fact that the data are longitudinal and that existing attitudes about effectiveness were controlled for offers support for the contention that the quality of citizens' personal contact with officers can influence their judgments about police effectiveness. Practical implications: The findings have implications for procedural justice in policing and for community-based policing strategies. It would appear that officers' respectfulness toward citizens during personal contacts can enhance their outcome-based efficacy in citizens' eyes. Police officers' interpersonal interactions with citizens can foster trust and make citizens feel that the police can keep them safe. Originality/value: The study is one of few that employ longitudinal data to test the experience-attitude relationship. The results indicate that the relationship often found in cross-sectional data also holds over time. In addition, the data come from a relatively rural area of the country, and the findings show that the link between personal contact with and attitudes about police - a link previously demonstrated primarily among urban samples of respondents - applies to non-urban areas as well. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Gau J.M.,California State University, San Bernardino | Brunson R.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Justice Quarterly | Year: 2010

There is tension between the core tenets of procedural justice and those of order maintenance policing. Research has shown that citizens' perceptions of procedural justice influence their beliefs about police legitimacy, yet at the same time, some order maintenance policing efforts stress frequent stops of vehicles and persons for suspected disorderly behavior. These types of programs can threaten citizens' perceptions of police legitimacy because the targeted offenses are minor and are often not well-defined. Citizens stopped for low-level offenses may view such stops as a form of harassment, as they may not believe they were doing anything to warrant police scrutiny. This paper examines young men's self-described experiences with this style of proactive policing. Study findings highlight that order maintenance policing strategies have negative implications for police legitimacy and crime control efforts via their potential to damage citizens' views of procedural justice. © 2010 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.


Vickers C.H.,California State University, San Bernardino
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2010

This study explores the interactional achievement of expert-novice in NS-NNS interaction. The analysis identifies interactional processes that contribute to expert-novice differentiation during team meetings that take place as part of an electrical and computer engineering course. Through analysis of data from the team interaction, participant perspectives, and ethnographic context, it is demonstrated that the NS takes on an expert identity, while the NNS takes on a novice identity as the NS and NNS engage in face-to-face interaction with each other. This expert-novice differentiation specifically occurs through the process of ratification, failure to ratify, and rejection of contributions. The NS's ability to gain expert status is linked to prior access to opportunities to participate in engineering teams and the forms of talk involved therein, which the NNS did not have access to. Conclusions indicate that this expert-novice relationship is not inherent to the NS-NNS relationship but that novice linguistically based identity has a bearing on the achievement of an expert non-linguistically based identity. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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