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Long Beach, CA, United States

California State University, Long Beach is the second largest campus of the 23 school California State University system and one of the largest universities in the state of California by enrollment, its student body numbering 36,279 for the Fall 2012 semester. With 5,148 grad students, the university enrolls one of the largest graduate student populations across the CSU and in the state of California alone. The university is located in the Los Altos neighborhood of Long Beach at the southeastern coastal tip of Los Angeles County, less than one mile from the border with Orange County. The university offers 137 different Bachelor's degrees, 92 types of Master's degrees, 5 Doctoral degrees including two Doctor of Education, a Ph.D in Engineering, a Doctor of Physical Therapy and Doctor of Nursing Practice, as well as 29 different teaching credentials.Long Beach State is one of the West Coast's top universities in student body racial diversity, being named the 5th most diverse university in the West by U.S. News & World Report. It is also home to the largest publicly funded art school west of the Mississippi. The university currently operates with one of the lowest student fees in the country at US$6,738 per year for full-time students having California residence. As a result, CSULB has been recognized repeatedly as one of "America's Best Value Colleges" by the Princeton Review. Wikipedia.


Liu X.,California State University, Long Beach
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

China's wind power capacity has increased dramatically in recent years, but about 30% of the installed capacity sits idle, so overinvestment in wind power capacity seems to be a serious problem. This paper explores reasons for the overinvestment. The economic analysis shows that, given uncertain future policy on wind power, it is optimal for power companies to invest more than the amount in a certain world. A part of the "overinvestment" has a real value, which can be interpreted as the value of holding scarce wind resource. This value exists because the wind-rich sites with convenient locations to connect to the grids are scarce resource, and also because the specific government policies that are essential for promoting wind power are uncertain in the future. This value should be taken into account in the investment decision, but it results in the phenomenon of "overinvestment". The concept of the value of holding scarce resource can be generally applied to the resources that are scarce and for which the future policy is uncertain. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Banuett F.,California State University, Long Beach
Fungal Biology Reviews | Year: 2015

The dikaryon is the persistent vegetative phase of most basidiomycetes and arises by cell fusion of two haploids carrying different mating type alleles. The diplophase is restricted to a single cell (the basidium) where meiosis takes place. Cell fusion and karyogamy are thus temporally and spatially separated. The dikaryon is characterized by the presence in each cell of two genetically distinct nuclei in a 1:1 ratio and by clamp connections, structures involved in partitioning of the nuclei during their synchronous division. In Coprinopsis cinerea and Schizophyllum commune, with two mating type loci (A and B), heterokaryons with identical A alleles exhibit nuclear migration but no clamps, and those with identical B alleles have unfused clamps (pseudoclamps) and no nuclear migration. Armillaria species are exceptional among basidiomycetes because of their persistent vegetative diploid phase with no clamp connections. Cell fusion is followed immediately by karyogamy. Haploidization of the diploid nucleus may occur in the fruiting body, resulting in a new dikaryophase-diplophase. Diploids in Ustilago maydis were the first to be synthesized in any basidiomycete. They played a critical role in pioneering studies on DNA recombination and repair. Subsequently diploids were generated in C. cinerea, S. commune, Microbotryum violaceum, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Dikaryons (or heterokaryons) and diploids of the same genotype exhibit phenotypic differences. The reason is not known but evidence indicates that gene expression differs when the same genetic information resides in two nuclei versus one nucleus in the same cell. Diploids in basidiomycete fungi are very stable by themselves but become unstable in 2N + N or 2N + 2N dikaryons. Instability results in haploidization (gradual loss of chromosomes) of the diploid nucleus. The mechanism that triggers this instability is not known. © 2015 The British Mycological Society.


Morris R.E.,University of St. Andrews | Bu X.,California State University, Long Beach
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2010

In many areas of chemistry the synthesis of chiral compounds is a target of increasing importance. They play a vital role in biological function and in many areas of society and science, including biology, medicine, biotechnology, chemistry and agriculture. Many pharmaceutical molecules, like their biological targets, are chiral and it is therefore easy to understand the growing demand for efficient methods of producing enantiomerically pure compounds. This is equally true for the preparation of chiral solids, which have potential applications in asymmetric catalysis, chiral separations and the like. In this Review we will consider recent progress and future potential in the development of methods for the preparation of chirally pure solids, in particular where the building blocks of the structure are achiral themselves. We will discuss strategies for the synthesis of both inorganic (for example, zeolites) and inorganic-organic hybrid (for example, metal organic framework) chiral porous solids. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Peterson M.R.,California State University, Long Beach | Nayak C.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We report results of exact diagonalization studies of the spin- and valley-polarized fractional quantum Hall effect in the N=0 and N=1 Landau levels in graphene. We use an effective model that incorporates Landau level mixing to lowest order in the parameter κ=((e2/ε)/(vF/))=(e2/εvF), which is magnetic field independent and can only be varied through the choice of substrate. We find Landau level mixing effects are negligible in the N=0 Landau level for κ2. In fact, the lowest Landau level projected Coulomb Hamiltonian is a better approximation to the real Hamiltonian for graphene than it is for semiconductor based quantum wells. Consequently, the principal fractional quantum Hall states are expected in the N=0 Landau level over this range of κ. In the N=1 Landau level, fractional quantum Hall states are expected for a smaller range of κ and Landau level mixing strongly breaks particle-hole symmetry, producing qualitatively different results compared to the N=0 Landau level. At half filling of the N=1 Landau level, we predict the anti-Pfaffian state will occur for κ∼0.25-0.75. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Behl R.J.,California State University, Long Beach
Sedimentology | Year: 2011

Chert spheroids are distinctive, early-diagenetic features that occur in bedded siliceous deposits spanning the Phanerozoic. These features are distinct in structure and genesis from similar, concentrically banded 'wood-grain' or 'onion-skin' chert nodules from carbonate successions. In the Miocene Monterey Formation of California (USA), chert spheroids are irregular, concentrically banded nodules, which formed by a unique version of brittle differential compaction that results from the contrasting physical properties of chert and diatomite. During shortening, there is brittle fracture of diatomite around, and horizontally away from, the convex surface of strain-resistant chert nodules. Unlike most older siliceous deposits, the Monterey Formation still preserves all stages of silica diagenesis, thus retaining textural, mineralogical and geochemical features key to unravelling the origin of chert spheroids and other enigmatic chert structures. Chert spheroids found in opal-A diatomite form individual nodules composed of alternating bands of impure opal-CT chert and pure opal-CT or chalcedony. With increased burial diagenesis, surrounding diatomite transforms to bedded porcelanite or chert, and spheroids no longer form discrete nodules, yet still display characteristic concentric bands of pure and impure microcrystalline quartz and chalcedony. Petrographic observations show that the purer silica bands are composed of void-filling cement that precipitated in curved dilational fractures, and do not reflect geochemical growth-banding in the manner of Liesegang phenomena invoked to explain concentrically banded chert nodules in limestone. Chertification of bedded siliceous sediment can occur more shallowly (<100m) and rapidly (<1Myr) than the bulk silica phase transitions forming porcelanite or siliceous shale in the Monterey Formation and other hemipelagic/pelagic siliceous deposits. Early diagenesis is indicated by physical properties, deformational style and oxygen-isotopic composition of chert spheroids. Early-formed cherts formed by pore-filling impregnation of the purest primary diatomaceous beds, along permeable fractures and in calcareous-siliceous strata. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 International Association of Sedimentologists.

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