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Long Beach, CA, United States

California State University, Long Beach is the second largest campus of the 23 school California State University system and one of the largest universities in the state of California by enrollment, its student body numbering 36,279 for the Fall 2012 semester. With 5,148 grad students, the university enrolls one of the largest graduate student populations across the CSU and in the state of California alone. The university is located in the Los Altos neighborhood of Long Beach at the southeastern coastal tip of Los Angeles County, less than one mile from the border with Orange County. The university offers 137 different Bachelor's degrees, 92 types of Master's degrees, 5 Doctoral degrees including two Doctor of Education, a Ph.D in Engineering, a Doctor of Physical Therapy and Doctor of Nursing Practice, as well as 29 different teaching credentials.Long Beach State is one of the West Coast's top universities in student body racial diversity, being named the 5th most diverse university in the West by U.S. News & World Report. It is also home to the largest publicly funded art school west of the Mississippi. The university currently operates with one of the lowest student fees in the country at US$6,738 per year for full-time students having California residence. As a result, CSULB has been recognized repeatedly as one of "America's Best Value Colleges" by the Princeton Review. Wikipedia.

China's wind power capacity has increased dramatically in recent years, but about 30% of the installed capacity sits idle, so overinvestment in wind power capacity seems to be a serious problem. This paper explores reasons for the overinvestment. The economic analysis shows that, given uncertain future policy on wind power, it is optimal for power companies to invest more than the amount in a certain world. A part of the "overinvestment" has a real value, which can be interpreted as the value of holding scarce wind resource. This value exists because the wind-rich sites with convenient locations to connect to the grids are scarce resource, and also because the specific government policies that are essential for promoting wind power are uncertain in the future. This value should be taken into account in the investment decision, but it results in the phenomenon of "overinvestment". The concept of the value of holding scarce resource can be generally applied to the resources that are scarce and for which the future policy is uncertain. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The proposal that the 'Anthropocene' should be ratified as a unit of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart/Geological Time Scale deserves serious consideration by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). The 'Anthropocene' task group within the ICS Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy is responsible for producing a recommendation to be evaluated and considered for approval at high levels in the ICS organization. It must consider the rank and extent of the unit as well as a GSSP or GSSA that defines its lower boundary or beginning. Furthermore, the task group must address several questions related to the proposed unit and the nature of the ICS chart/timescale that are unique to it. Is the 'Anthropocene' a concept in search of a distinct stratigraphic record? Should it be defined on a stratigraphic signal or on a date in human history? Is the 'Anthropocene' a unit of Earth history or human history or primarily a future projection? Is the 'Anthropocene' useful as a chronostratigraphic unit on geological maps? Has the perceived change to a human-dominated Earth system overwhelmed the natural Earth system? What is the conceptual basis of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart/Geologic Time Scale? Will the term 'Anthropocene' have value even if not ratified as a formal unit?. © The Geological Society of London 2014. Source

Banuett F.,California State University, Long Beach
Fungal Biology Reviews

The dikaryon is the persistent vegetative phase of most basidiomycetes and arises by cell fusion of two haploids carrying different mating type alleles. The diplophase is restricted to a single cell (the basidium) where meiosis takes place. Cell fusion and karyogamy are thus temporally and spatially separated. The dikaryon is characterized by the presence in each cell of two genetically distinct nuclei in a 1:1 ratio and by clamp connections, structures involved in partitioning of the nuclei during their synchronous division. In Coprinopsis cinerea and Schizophyllum commune, with two mating type loci (A and B), heterokaryons with identical A alleles exhibit nuclear migration but no clamps, and those with identical B alleles have unfused clamps (pseudoclamps) and no nuclear migration. Armillaria species are exceptional among basidiomycetes because of their persistent vegetative diploid phase with no clamp connections. Cell fusion is followed immediately by karyogamy. Haploidization of the diploid nucleus may occur in the fruiting body, resulting in a new dikaryophase-diplophase. Diploids in Ustilago maydis were the first to be synthesized in any basidiomycete. They played a critical role in pioneering studies on DNA recombination and repair. Subsequently diploids were generated in C. cinerea, S. commune, Microbotryum violaceum, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Dikaryons (or heterokaryons) and diploids of the same genotype exhibit phenotypic differences. The reason is not known but evidence indicates that gene expression differs when the same genetic information resides in two nuclei versus one nucleus in the same cell. Diploids in basidiomycete fungi are very stable by themselves but become unstable in 2N + N or 2N + 2N dikaryons. Instability results in haploidization (gradual loss of chromosomes) of the diploid nucleus. The mechanism that triggers this instability is not known. © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Source

Morris R.E.,University of St. Andrews | Bu X.,California State University, Long Beach
Nature Chemistry

In many areas of chemistry the synthesis of chiral compounds is a target of increasing importance. They play a vital role in biological function and in many areas of society and science, including biology, medicine, biotechnology, chemistry and agriculture. Many pharmaceutical molecules, like their biological targets, are chiral and it is therefore easy to understand the growing demand for efficient methods of producing enantiomerically pure compounds. This is equally true for the preparation of chiral solids, which have potential applications in asymmetric catalysis, chiral separations and the like. In this Review we will consider recent progress and future potential in the development of methods for the preparation of chirally pure solids, in particular where the building blocks of the structure are achiral themselves. We will discuss strategies for the synthesis of both inorganic (for example, zeolites) and inorganic-organic hybrid (for example, metal organic framework) chiral porous solids. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Peterson M.R.,California State University, Long Beach | Nayak C.,University of California at Santa Barbara
Physical Review Letters

We report results of exact diagonalization studies of the spin- and valley-polarized fractional quantum Hall effect in the N=0 and N=1 Landau levels in graphene. We use an effective model that incorporates Landau level mixing to lowest order in the parameter κ=((e2/ε)/(vF/))=(e2/εvF), which is magnetic field independent and can only be varied through the choice of substrate. We find Landau level mixing effects are negligible in the N=0 Landau level for κ2. In fact, the lowest Landau level projected Coulomb Hamiltonian is a better approximation to the real Hamiltonian for graphene than it is for semiconductor based quantum wells. Consequently, the principal fractional quantum Hall states are expected in the N=0 Landau level over this range of κ. In the N=1 Landau level, fractional quantum Hall states are expected for a smaller range of κ and Landau level mixing strongly breaks particle-hole symmetry, producing qualitatively different results compared to the N=0 Landau level. At half filling of the N=1 Landau level, we predict the anti-Pfaffian state will occur for κ∼0.25-0.75. © 2014 American Physical Society. Source

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