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Chico, CA, United States

California State University, Chico is the second-oldest campus in the 23 campus California State University system. It is located in Chico, California, about ninety miles north of Sacramento. As of the Fall 2012 semester, the university had a total enrollment of 16,470 students. The university offers 126 types of Bachelor's degrees, 35 types of Master's degrees, and four types of teaching credentials. The university does not confer Doctoral degrees. Wikipedia.


Lamarine R.J.,California State University, Chico
Journal of Drug Education | Year: 2012

Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users. © 2012 Baywood Publishing Co., Inc. Source


Jones R.C.,California State University, Chico
Biology and Philosophy | Year: 2013

I sketch briefly some of the more influential theories concerned with the moral status of nonhuman animals, highlighting their biological/physiological aspects. I then survey the most prominent empirical research on the physiological and cognitive capacities of nonhuman animals, focusing primarily on sentience, but looking also at a few other morally relevant capacities such as self-awareness, memory, and mindreading. Lastly, I discuss two examples of current animal welfare policy, namely, animals used in industrialized food production and in scientific research. I argue that even the most progressive current welfare policies lag behind, are ignorant of, or arbitrarily disregard the science on sentience and cognition. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Citek C.,Stanford University | Lyons C.T.,Stanford University | Wasinger E.C.,California State University, Chico | Stack T.D.P.,Stanford University
Nature Chemistry | Year: 2012

The enzyme tyrosinase contains two Cu I centres, trigonally coordinated by imidazole nitrogens of six conserved histidine residues. The enzyme activates O 2 to form a μ-η 2: η 2-peroxo-dicopper(II) core, which hydroxylates tyrosine to a catechol in the first committed step of melanin biosynthesis. Here, we report a family of synthetic peroxo complexes, with spectroscopic and chemical features consistent with those of oxygenated tyrosinase, formed through the self-assembly of monodentate imidazole ligands, Cu I and O 2 at-125 °C. An extensively studied complex reproduces the enzymatic electrophilic oxidation of exogenous phenolic substrates to catechols in good stoichiometric yields. The self-assembly and subsequent reactivity support the intrinsic stability of the Cu 2O 2 core with imidazole ligation, in the absence of a polypeptide framework, and the innate capacity to effect hydroxylation of phenolic substrates. These observations suggest that a foundational role of the protein matrix is to facilitate expression of properties native to the core by bearing the entropic costs of assembly and precluding undesired oxidative degradation pathways. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Huston C.,California State University, Chico
Online journal of issues in nursing | Year: 2013

While myriad forces are changing the face of contemporary healthcare, one could argue that nothing will change the way nursing is practiced more than current advances in technology. Indeed, technology is changing the world at warp speed and nowhere is this more evident than in healthcare settings. This article identifies seven emerging technologies that will change the practice of nursing; three skill sets nurses will need to develop to acquire, use, and integrate these emerging technologies; and four challenges nurse leaders will face in integrating this new technology. Source


Kato T.T.,California State University, Chico
International Geology Review | Year: 2015

Mélanges occur as discontinuous, mappable, units along an extensive N-S-trending, steeply dipping zone of distributed shear in metamorphic complexes along the coast of central Chile. Large mélange zones, from north to south, near Chañaral, Los Vilos, Pichilemu, and Chiloé Island, contain variations in lithologic and structural detail, but are consistent in exhibiting cross-cutting fabric features indicating a progressive transition from earlier ductile to more brittle deformation. In the Infiernillo mélange near Pichilemu, Permian to Early Triassic, sub-horizontal schistosity planes of the Western Series schist are disrupted, incorporated into, and uplifted along high-angle, N-S- to NNE-SSW-trending brittle-ductile shears. Mylonitic and cataclastic zones within the mélange matrix indicate active lateral shear during cumulative exhumation from depths exceeding 12 km in some areas. Exotic lithologies, such as Carboniferous mafic amphibolite and blueschist, formed during earlier Gondwanide subduction, match well with similar rocks in the Bahia Mansa to Los Pabilos region 750 km to the south, suggesting possible dextral offset. The development of the Middle to Late Triassic, N-S=trending, near-vertical shear zones formed weaknesses in the crust facilitating later fault localization, gravitational collapse, and subduction erosion along the continental margin. The length and linearity of this zone of lateral movement, coincident with a general hiatus of regional arc magmatism during the Middle to Late Triassic, is consistent with large-scale dextral transpression, or possible transform movement, during highly oblique NNE-SSW convergence along the pre-Andean (Gondwana) margin. The resultant margin parallel N-S-trending shear planes may be exploited by seismically active faults along the present coastal area of Chile. The palaeo-tectonic setting during the transitional period between earlier Gondwanide (Devonian to Permian) and later Andean (Late Jurassic to present) subduction may have had some similarity to the presently active San Andreas transform system of California. © 2015 © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

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