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Camarillo, CA, United States

California State University Channel Islands is a four-year public comprehensive university located outside Camarillo, California in Ventura County. CI opened in 2002 as the 23rd campus in the California State University system, succeeding the Ventura County branch campus of CSU Northridge. The campus had formerly been the Camarillo State Mental Hospital. It has been and continues to be the setting for numerous television, film and music video productions. CI is located midway between Santa Barbara and Los Angeles in Camarillo, at the intersection of the Oxnard Plain and northern most edge of the Santa Monica Mountain range. While the main campus is not located on the Channel Islands, the university operates a scientific research station on Santa Rosa Island.Channel Islands offers 53 types of Bachelor's degrees, 3 different Master's degrees, and 6 teaching credentials. It does not confer Doctoral degrees. In the Fall of 2012, the university enrolled the largest amount of students in its 10 year history with 4,920 students including undergraduate and postgraduate. Since its establishment, the university has awarded nearly 7,000 degrees. Wikipedia.

Kerfoot B.P.,Surgical Service Urology Section | Kerfoot B.P.,Harvard University | Baker H.,California State University, Channel Islands
Annals of Surgery

Objective: To assess the efficacy of a "spaced-education" game as a method of continuing medical education (CME) among physicians across the globe. Background: The efficacy of educational games for the CME has yet to be established. We created a novel online educational game by incorporating game mechanics into "spaced education" (SE), an evidence-based method of online CME. Methods: This 34-week randomized trial enrolled practicing urologists across the globe. The SE game consisted of 40 validated multiple-choice questions and explanations on urology clinical guidelines. Enrollees were randomized to 2 cohorts: cohort A physicians were sent 2 questions via an automated e-mail system every 2 days, and cohort B physicians were sent 4 questions every 4 days. Adaptive game mechanics re-sent the questions in 12 or 24 days if answered incorrectly and correctly, respectively. Questions expired if not answered on time (appointment dynamic). Physicians retired questions by answering each correctly twice-in-a-row (progression dynamic). Competition was fostered by posting relative performance among physicians. Main outcome measures were baseline scores (percentage of questions answered correctly upon initial presentation) and completion scores (percentage of questions retired). Results: A total of 1470 physicians from 63 countries enrolled. Median baseline score was 48% (interquartile range [IQR] 17) and, in multivariate analyses, was found to vary significantly by region (Cohen d max = 0.31, P = 0.001) and age (d max = 0.41, P < 0.001). Median completion score was 98% (IQR 25) and varied significantly by age (d max = 0.21, P < 0.001) and American Board of Urology certification (d = 0.10, P = 0.033) but not by region (multivariate analyses). Question clustering reduced physicians performance (d = 0.43, P < 0.001). Seventy-six percent of enrollees (1111/1470) requested to participate in future SE games. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

The expanse of ocean designated as marine protected areas (MPAs) has increased considerably, particularly since the 1990s. Most MPAs are situated close to shore where small-scale fishermen access resources for nutritional and economic security, which may potentially create adverse effects on local livelihoods. This paper draws from the results of fourteen-months of fieldwork conducted on the Caribbean islands of Providencia and Santa Catalina, Colombia, focused on identifying fishermen's livelihood approaches and determining the variables that influence their decision to accept or reject conservation programs. Findings suggest that fishermen deliberately diversify their livelihoods, ensuring resiliency when faced with fluctuations in marine resources and, more recently, resource management policies. In addition, it finds that trust in local government institutions is the variable that most shapes fishermen's acceptance of MPAs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Riffell J.A.,University of Washington | Alarcon R.,California State University, Channel Islands

Background:Combinations of floral traits - which operate as attractive signals to pollinators - act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear.Methodology/Principal Findings:Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition - a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers - a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths - showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however - a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths - did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays.Conclusions/Significance:These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory traces to mediate future foraging decisions. © 2013 Riffell, Alarcón. Source

Winkler M.,California State University, Channel Islands
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

The field of pancreatic stem and progenitor cell biology has been hampered by a lack of in vitro functional and quantitative assays that allow for the analysis of the single cell. Analyses of single progenitors are of critical importance because they provide definitive ways to unequivocally demonstrate the lineage potential of individual progenitors. Although methods have been devised to generate "pancreatospheres" in suspension culture from single cells, several limitations exist. First, it is time-consuming to perform single cell deposition for a large number of cells, which in turn commands large volumes of culture media and space. Second, numeration of the resulting pancreatospheres is labor-intensive, especially when the frequency of the pancreatosphere-initiating progenitors is low. Third, the pancreatosphere assay is not an efficient method to allow both the proliferation and differentiation of pancreatic progenitors in the same culture well, restricting the usefulness of the assay. To overcome these limitations, a semi-solid media based colony assay for pancreatic progenitors has been developed and is presented in this report. This method takes advantage of an existing concept from the hematopoietic colony assay, in which methylcellulose is used to provide viscosity to the media, allowing the progenitor cells to stay in three-dimensional space as they undergo proliferation as well as differentiation. To enrich insulin-expressing colony-forming progenitors from a heterogeneous population, we utilized cells that express neurogenin (Ngn) 3, a pancreatic endocrine progenitor cell marker. Murine embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived Ngn3 expressing cells tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter were sorted and as many as 25,000 cells per well were plated into low-attachment 24-well culture dishes. Each well contained 500 μL of semi-solid media with the following major components: methylcellulose, Matrigel, nicotinamide, exendin-4, activin βB, and conditioned media collected from murine ES cell-derived pancreatic-like cells. After 8 to 12 days of culture, insulin-expressing colonies with distinctive morphology were formed and could be further analyzed for pancreatic gene expression using quantitative RT-PCR and immunoflourescent staining to determine the lineage composition of each colony. In summary, our colony assay allows easy detection and quantification of functional progenitors within a heterogeneous population of cells. In addition, the semi-solid media format allows uniform presentation of extracellular matrix components and growth factors to cells, enabling progenitors to proliferate and differentiate in vitro. This colony assay provides unique opportunities for mechanistic studies of pancreatic progenitor cells at the single cell level. Source

Alarcon R.,University of California at Riverside | Alarcon R.,California State University, Channel Islands

Most recent studies describing pollination networks are based on observed flower visits, and few have explicitly tested if the floral visitors actually carry pollen. Since floral visitors can vary in their ability to remove and transfer pollen, it is important to show that visitation patterns reflect effective pollination. Given the difficulty of measuring per-visit pollen deposition at the community scale, a first step is to examine the amount of conspecific pollen carried by insect visitors. Here I compared the plant-animal visitation network with the pollen-transport network, estimated from insect pollen loads, for a montane meadow community from southern California, USA. Visitation and pollen-transport networks were positively associated with each other in both 2001 and 2002. However, the exclusion of visitors that do not carry any conspecific pollen reveals that pollen-transport networks are more specialized from the plants' perspective and that species are involved in fewer mutualistic interactions compared with estimates derived from visitation frequencies. Although conspecific pollen loads were smaller in 2002, bees tended to carry the largest conspecific loads in both years and were responsible for transporting the most pollen. These results suggest that, although visitation networks are suitable first-order approximations of pollination networks, information on which visitors carry conspecific pollen, and in what amounts, is crucial for distinguishing between antagonistic and mutualistic interactions. © 2009 Oikos. Source

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