Maher S.T.,Risk Management Professionals |
Long G.D.,Risk Management Professionals |
Cromartie R.S.,Risk Management Professionals |
Sutton I.S.,Sutton Technical Books |
Steinhilber M.R.,California State Lands Commission
Process Safety Progress | Year: 2013
The April 2010 Deepwater Horizon tragedy and release from the Macondo Well resulted in a re-examination of the existing regulatory framework, significant modifications to the structure and function of key regulatory agencies, and the application of new safety management system (SMS) requirements to offshore facilities in United States waters. Late-2010 witnessed the evolution of both prescriptive and performance-based regulations designed to address the direct and underlying causes of this tragedy. The objective of this article is to briefly review these new regulatory requirements and illustrate how they are related to the application of other SMSs, for both offshore and onshore facilities. The common themes, objectives, and overlaps of specific onshore and offshore SMS elements was examined, and tips on how these overlaps can be used to more effectively (and sensibly) implement these programs is discussed. This article also outlined successful SMS programs that are being applied by various state agencies to onshore and offshore coastal facilities, and derived lessons-learned from these programs that may assist in the implementation of related federal programs. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Edwards M.,California State Lands Commission
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2014
This paper describes the development and use of objective and subjective evaluation criteria for hydrostatic pressure tests of oil pipelines at marine terminal facilities by a California state agency. Many regulatory agencies require a periodic hydrostatic pressure test (hydrotest or static liquid pressure test) to re-validate the integrity of a pipeline. Performance variables for a typical test include: test duration, test pressure, test medium temperature, ambient environment temperature, and volumetric changes. At California State Lands Commission, Marine Facilities Division, an Excel spreadsheet is used to evaluate test results. The spreadsheet is also used by many marine oil terminals and contracted testing companies. The spreadsheet aids the user to: perform pretest checks, record input, quantify numerical output, and plot graphical output. The pretest checks include calculating fill volume and determining significant trapped air. The graphical output provides a visual presentation for the test variables of time, test medium temperature, ambient environment temperature, actual test pressure, theoretical test pressure, and allowable pressure variance. Acceptable pressure range is shown as a plus or minus bandwidth around the theoretical test pressure, and is based upon the thermal expansion sensitivity of the test medium. For those test results that fall partially outside the acceptable pressure range, interpretive criteria are used involving data trends and correlations. The spreadsheet software is the property of the State; however, it is freely distributed to anyone who requests a copy. An acceptable hydrostatic pressure test is achieved by adequate test preparation, quality data collection, and quantitative, and often times, interpretive results evaluation. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.
Nafday A.M.,California State Lands Commission
Journal of Energy Engineering | Year: 2015
Multifarious proposals for siting, design, construction, and operation of onshore and offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals in California have recently undergone a rigorous federal and state regulatory appraisal. The regulations call for compliance with various environmental, public safety, and security mandates encoded in legal statutes. Public safety from the hazards of a large-scale LNG spill over water, during LNG tanker transit or marine terminal operation, emerged as the dominant concern for the affected local communities. To address their apprehension, extensive modeling of potentially perilous beyond design basis spill scenarios, ensuing from natural, accidental, and malevolent intentional events was conducted. It entailed finite element modeling for vessel collision with diverse LNG tanker types and applying computational fluid dynamics to predict the extent of LNG spread over water, atmospheric dispersion of vapor cloud, and the consequences of ignition. The objective was to appraise the adverse impacts of cryogenic fluid, fire propagation, and thermal radiation on humans and property not associated with these LNG terminals. Based on insights from risk analyses for three LNG projects in California, challenges in developing complex mathematical models, assessing public safety, and specification of safety criteria are delineated to benefit others planning similar ventures in California or elsewhere. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Wilson R.I.,California Geological Survey |
Miller K.M.,California Governors Office of Emergency Services |
Admire A.,Humboldt State University |
Borrero J.,University of Southern California |
And 6 more authors.
NCEE 2014 - 10th U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering: Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014
The California Tsunami Program, comprised of the California Office of Emergency Services (Cal-OES), California Geological Survey (CGS) and funded through the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), works with other governmental, academic, and industry experts to improve tsunami preparedness and mitigation in coastal communities. The program has utilized information from the February 27, 2010 Chile and March 11, 2011 Japan tsunamis, which caused dramatic loss of life and damage in the near-source region and notable impacts in California. Although neither event caused notable inundation of dry land in California, dozens of harbors sustained damage totaling approximately $100 Million. Information gathered from these events has helped influence new tsunami hazard mitigation strategies and identify the need to develop new map tools as potential basis for derivative products for emergency response, maritime, and land-use planners as well as design guidance pertaining to the engineering and construction industry: • Scenario-specific, tsunami evacuation "playbook" maps and guidance documents are being produced detailing inundation from tsunamis of various size and source location. An analytical tool called FASTER is also being developed to integrate storm, tides, modeling errors, and local tsunami run-up potential with the forecasted tsunami amplitudes in real-time when a tsunami Alert is sent out. These products will help communities better implement evacuations and response activities for minor to moderate (less than maximum) tsunami events. • Evaluation of observed and modeled currents as well as damage to maritime facilities are being used to produce in-harbor tsunami hazard maps for currents and event duration, and identify offshore safety zones for potential boat evacuation during future distant source events. • The significant damage to exposed communities in Japan provided incentive for California to develop "probability-based" products, appropriate for land-use planning under the California Seismic Hazard Mapping Act. These products could also be integrated into multiple other applications, including the new building codes being developed for tsunami loads. • Real-time and post-tsunami CGS field teams have been expanded to capture additional detailed information that can be shared in real-time and after an event through a state-wide clearinghouse. Data collected from these field teams has and will continue to assist both Cal-OES and FEMA in their post-disaster evaluation process. All products and their applications will be made available to affected coastal California communities for integration into their Local Hazard Mitigation Plans, Local Coastal Programs, and the State Hazard Mitigation Plan. In addition, guidance and best practices developed for and by these products will be reviewed by the NTHMP via member agencies, states, provinces, and territories to help determine opportunities for application and appropriate national implementation. This is the only established national program with demonstrated ability to deliver seamless and consistent public safety messaging, products, applied effectively at the local level to citizens on the ground, at the coast, ahead of the next tsunami.