Sacramento, CA, United States
Sacramento, CA, United States

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Davidson I.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Scianni C.,California State Lands Commission | Hewitt C.,University of Waikato | Everett R.,United States Coast Guard Academy | And 3 more authors.
Biofouling | Year: 2016

Abstract: Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Murphy K.R.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Murphy K.R.,Sydney Water | Boehme J.R.,Smithsonian Environmental Research Center | Boehme J.R.,International Joint Commission | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2013

To minimize the risk of biological invasions associated with commercial shipping, vessels are required to conduct ballast water exchange (BWE)≤200 nautical miles offshore when arriving in the US from foreign ports, and some states require coastal BWE≤50 miles offshore along domestic routes. Previous research suggests that the intensity of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) can be used to verify whether BWE was implemented. This study examined seasonal and spatial variability of fDOM in Pacific rim ports and the adjacent seas, using the North American coast as a model system to test whether regional fluorescence intensity thresholds consistently distinguish port sites from coastal and oceanic sites at increasing distances from shore. Over 2000 samples from major port systems on the US Pacific coast and along offshore (perpendicular) and alongshore (parallel) transects were analyzed. Overall, humic fDOM fluorescence intensity (C3*=370/494nm) effectively discriminated port versus oceanic sites located further than 100. miles from shore, but discriminated only a subset of coastal versus oceanic sources within the northeastern Pacific. Data from additional global ports are needed to predict the frequency of false positive or false negative ballast source determinations using fDOM for foreign vessel traffic. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | California State Lands Commission, United States Coast Guard Academy, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biofouling | Year: 2016

Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions.


Werner S.,Seismic Systems and Engineering Consultants | McCullough N.,CH2M HILL | Bruin W.,Halcrow | Augustine A.,California State Lands Commission | And 3 more authors.
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2011

The Port de Port-au-Prince is the largest seaport in Haiti, and is essential to the country's economy. The Haiti earthquake severely damaged the Port, which disrupted the transport of cargoes into Haiti that were vital to the country's emergency response and post-earthquake recovery. Major contributors to this damage were widespread soil liquefaction, the poor performance of batter piles, and the poor pre-earthquake condition of many components of the Port's waterfront structures. Immediately after the earthquake, a U.S. military task force was deployed to the port to perform emergency repairs needed to reestablish cargo throughput. These repairs restored a significant cargo-throughput capacity at this small but vital seaport within weeks after the earthquake. © 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.


Maher S.T.,Risk Management Professionals | Long G.D.,Risk Management Professionals | Cromartie R.S.,Risk Management Professionals | Sutton I.S.,Sutton Technical Books | Steinhilber M.R.,California State Lands Commission
Process Safety Progress | Year: 2013

The April 2010 Deepwater Horizon tragedy and release from the Macondo Well resulted in a re-examination of the existing regulatory framework, significant modifications to the structure and function of key regulatory agencies, and the application of new safety management system (SMS) requirements to offshore facilities in United States waters. Late-2010 witnessed the evolution of both prescriptive and performance-based regulations designed to address the direct and underlying causes of this tragedy. The objective of this article is to briefly review these new regulatory requirements and illustrate how they are related to the application of other SMSs, for both offshore and onshore facilities. The common themes, objectives, and overlaps of specific onshore and offshore SMS elements was examined, and tips on how these overlaps can be used to more effectively (and sensibly) implement these programs is discussed. This article also outlined successful SMS programs that are being applied by various state agencies to onshore and offshore coastal facilities, and derived lessons-learned from these programs that may assist in the implementation of related federal programs. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.


Edwards M.,California State Lands Commission
Proceedings of the Biennial International Pipeline Conference, IPC | Year: 2014

This paper describes the development and use of objective and subjective evaluation criteria for hydrostatic pressure tests of oil pipelines at marine terminal facilities by a California state agency. Many regulatory agencies require a periodic hydrostatic pressure test (hydrotest or static liquid pressure test) to re-validate the integrity of a pipeline. Performance variables for a typical test include: test duration, test pressure, test medium temperature, ambient environment temperature, and volumetric changes. At California State Lands Commission, Marine Facilities Division, an Excel spreadsheet is used to evaluate test results. The spreadsheet is also used by many marine oil terminals and contracted testing companies. The spreadsheet aids the user to: perform pretest checks, record input, quantify numerical output, and plot graphical output. The pretest checks include calculating fill volume and determining significant trapped air. The graphical output provides a visual presentation for the test variables of time, test medium temperature, ambient environment temperature, actual test pressure, theoretical test pressure, and allowable pressure variance. Acceptable pressure range is shown as a plus or minus bandwidth around the theoretical test pressure, and is based upon the thermal expansion sensitivity of the test medium. For those test results that fall partially outside the acceptable pressure range, interpretive criteria are used involving data trends and correlations. The spreadsheet software is the property of the State; however, it is freely distributed to anyone who requests a copy. An acceptable hydrostatic pressure test is achieved by adequate test preparation, quality data collection, and quantitative, and often times, interpretive results evaluation. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.


Nafday A.M.,California State Lands Commission
Journal of Energy Engineering | Year: 2015

Multifarious proposals for siting, design, construction, and operation of onshore and offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminals in California have recently undergone a rigorous federal and state regulatory appraisal. The regulations call for compliance with various environmental, public safety, and security mandates encoded in legal statutes. Public safety from the hazards of a large-scale LNG spill over water, during LNG tanker transit or marine terminal operation, emerged as the dominant concern for the affected local communities. To address their apprehension, extensive modeling of potentially perilous beyond design basis spill scenarios, ensuing from natural, accidental, and malevolent intentional events was conducted. It entailed finite element modeling for vessel collision with diverse LNG tanker types and applying computational fluid dynamics to predict the extent of LNG spread over water, atmospheric dispersion of vapor cloud, and the consequences of ignition. The objective was to appraise the adverse impacts of cryogenic fluid, fire propagation, and thermal radiation on humans and property not associated with these LNG terminals. Based on insights from risk analyses for three LNG projects in California, challenges in developing complex mathematical models, assessing public safety, and specification of safety criteria are delineated to benefit others planning similar ventures in California or elsewhere. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Bernadett L.D.,California State Lands Commission
Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation | Year: 2014

An overview of the doctrine and the factors considered by the US Supreme Court in a case involving the States of Florida and Georgia for equitable apportionment is presented. The State of Florida filed a case against the State of Georgia in 2013, alleging that Georgia had been extracting an increasing amount of water from interstate rivers to meet its agricultural, industrial, and municipal demand for water. Florida urged the Supreme Court to equitably aportion the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Basin water between the two states to solve this problem. The Supreme Court considered the doctrine and the factors from earlier similar cases to decide the case.


Nafday A.M.,California State Lands Commission
Natural Hazards Review | Year: 2016

California's marine oil terminals (MOTs) transport the bulk of the state's requirement of petroleum and petroleum products and constitute a vital infrastructure link to mount successful emergency response after disasters. The ARkStorm scenario may simultaneously affect multiple MOTs and potentially trigger a major disruption in crude supply to refineries and petroleum products to the public, cause likely closure of ports, and significantly impact the economy of the western United States. As disaster relief necessitates timely supply of petroleum products, the feasibility of continuing operations at the state MOTs during the ARkStorm scenario is assessed, taking into consideration the existing design, and operational and procedural safeguards that were primarily built in to address public safety, health, and environmental effects from other hazards. The expected runoffs from ARkStorm are estimated to overwhelm MOTs' drainage design and site-specific flooding analysis and review of mooring analysis for extreme currents is recommended. It is also prudent to formulate strategies to address regional and simultaneous impact of this common cause scenario. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Keen A.S.,University of Southern California | Eskijan M.L.,California State Lands Commission | Lynett P.J.,University of Southern California
Ports 2016: Port Planning and Development - Papers from Sessions of the 14th Triennial International Conference | Year: 2016

As a result of damage from the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japanese teletsunamis, the tsunami risk to the small craft marinas in California has become an important concern. This paper outlines an assessment tool which can be used to assess the tsunami hazard to small craft harbors. The methodology is based on the demand and capacity of a floating dock system. Results are provided as fragility curves and give a quantitative assessment of survivability. This tool is not exact and is provided only to give an indication as to survivability and/or failure of a floating dock system of vessels and floating components/piles, subject to tsunami events. The purpose is to quickly evaluate whether or not a floating dock is likely to survive or be destroyed by a tsunami having the input properties. © ASCE.

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