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San Luis Obispo, CA, United States

California Polytechnic State University or California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, also known as Cal Poly San Luis Obispo or Cal Poly, is a public university located in San Luis Obispo, California, United States. Founded in 1901 as a vocational high school, it is currently one of only two polytechnic universities in the 23-member California State University system. Comprising six distinct colleges, the university offers 147 bachelor's degrees, 49 master's degrees, and 7 teaching credentials. The university does not confer doctoral degrees.Cal Poly is a member of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities and the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. Cal Poly is known for its "learn by doing" educational philosophy that encourages students to solve real-world problems by combining classroom theory with experiential laboratory exercise. Cal Poly is one of four California State Universities that participate in the Big West Conference in athletics. Wikipedia.

The preferential synthesis of heat shock proteins (Hsps) in response to thermal stress [the heat shock response (HSR)] has been shown to vary in species that occupy different thermal environments. A survey of case studies of aquatic (mostly marine) organisms occupying stable thermal environments at all latitudes, from polar to tropical, shows that they do not in general respond to heat stress with an inducible HSR. Organisms that occupy highly variable thermal environments (variations up to >20°C), like the intertidal zone, induce the HSR frequently and within the range of body temperatures they normally experience, suggesting that the response is part of their biochemical strategy to occupy this thermal niche. The highest temperatures at which these organisms can synthesize Hsps are only a few degrees Celsius higher than the highest body temperatures they experience. Thus, they live close to their thermal limits and any further increase in temperature is probably going to push them beyond those limits. In comparison, organisms occupying moderately variable thermal environments (<10°C), like the subtidal zone, activate the HSR at temperatures above those they normally experience in their habitats. They have a wider temperature range above their body temperature range over which they can synthesize Hsps. Contrary to our expectations, species from highly (in comparison with moderately) variable thermal environments have a limited acclimatory plasticity. Due to this variation in the HSR, species from stable and highly variable environments are likely to be more affected by climate change than species from moderately variable environments. © 2010, Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Ahlgren W.L.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2012

Depletion of easily accessible petroleum reserves has created unstable oil supply and price, opening the opportunity to replace oil as an energy source with other fossil sources and ultimately with renewable and perhaps nuclear sources. The dual-fuel strategy is a plan to facilitate the transition from fossil to renewable sources by first replacing fossil with renewable fuels. It stipulates that all energy sources (fossil, renewable, and nuclear) will be most efficiently monetized by conversion to three primary energy vectors: electric power and two liquid renewable fuels, all compatible with existing infrastructure. One member of a dual-fuel pair is nitrogen-based, for example, ammonia, and the other is carbon-based, for example, methanol. The two are complementary: ammonia is carbon-free, but has high relative toxicity, while methanol has low relative toxicity, but contains carbon. Unlike hydrogen (a gas), these liquid fuels are compatible with existing infrastructure with only modest modification. Alternatives to ammonia are liquid ammoniates; alternatives to methanol include ethanol, dimethyl ether, and higher alcohols, and alkanes. The two renewable fuels may be called nitrofuel and carbofuel to avoid prejudice as to their exact composition. Renewable fuels are derived from air, and because nitrogen is 2000 times more abundant in air than is carbon dioxide, nitrofuel will be most efficiently produced and at least cost; it will therefore be used whenever possible. In some applications, however, the additional cost of producing carbon-based fuel will be justified by ease of handling. A small number of applications require high energy density fuel; these will be served by a secondary carbon-based fuel vector, derived from primary carbofuel at further cost. The dual-fuel strategy is market-driven. It identifies the sources of competitive advantage for renewable fuels and relies on the force of free enterprise to create a postpetroleum civilization powered by a zero-net-carbon energy system. The strategy enables global carbon emissions to be reduced significantly early in the transition, perhaps by as much as an order of magnitude by 2030, with zero-emissions perhaps as early as 2050. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

Tomanek L.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Integrative and Comparative Biology | Year: 2012

Climate change will affect temperature extremes and averages, and hyposaline conditions in coastal areas due to extreme precipitation events and oceanic pH. How climate change will push species close to, or beyond, their physiological tolerance limits as well as change the limits of their biogeographic ranges can probably be investigated best in species that have already responded to climate change and whose distribution ranges are currently in flux. Blue mussels provide such a study system, with the invading warm-adapted Mediterranean Mytilus galloprovincialis having replaced the native more cold-adapted Mytilus trossulus from the southern part of its range in southern California over the past century, possibly due to climate change. However, freshwater input may prevent the latter species from expanding further north. We used a proteomics approach to characterize the responses of the two congeners to acute heat stress, chronic thermal acclimation, and hyposaline stress. In addition, we investigated the proteomic changes in response to decreasing seawater pH in another bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. The results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a common costressor during environmental stress, including oceanic acidification, and possibly cause modifications of cytoskeletal elements. All stressors disrupted protein homeostasis, indicated by the induction of molecular chaperones and, in the case of acute heat stress, proteasome isoforms, possibly due both to protein denaturation directly by the stressor and to the production of ROS. Acute stress by heat and hyposalinity changed several small G-proteins implicated in cytoskeletal modifications and vesicular transport, respectively. Changes in abundance of proteins involved in energy metabolism and ROS scavenging further suggest a possible trade-off during acute and chronic stress from heat and cold between ROS-generating NADH-producing pathways and ROS-scavenging NADPH-producing pathways, especially through the reaction of NADPH-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and the pentose-phosphate pathway. Some of the proteomic changes may not constitute de novo protein synthesis but rather shifts in abundance of isoforms differing in posttranslational modifications, specifically acetylation by a NAD-dependent deacetylase (sirtuin). Interspecific differences suggest that these processes set physiological tolerance limits and thereby contribute to recent biogeographic shifts in range, possibly caused by climate change. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. Source

Tomanek L.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014

Comparisons of proteomic responses of closely related congeners and populations have shown which cellular processes are critical to adapt to environmental stress. For example, several proteomic species comparisons showed that increasing abundances of oxidative stress proteins indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent a ubiquitous signal and possible co-stressor of warm and cold temperature, acute hyposaline and low pH stress, possibly causing a shift from pro-oxidant NADH-producing to anti-oxidant NADPH-producing and -consuming metabolic pathways. Changes in cytoskeletal and actin-binding proteins in response to several stressors, including ROS, suggest that both are important structural and functional elements in responding to stress. Disruption of protein homeostasis, e.g., increased abundance of molecular chaperones, was severe in response to acute heat stress, inducing proteolysis, but was also observed in response to chronic heat and cold stress and was concentrated to the endoplasmic reticulum during hyposaline stress. Small GTPases affecting vesicle formation and transport, Ca2+-signaling and ion transport responded to salinity stress in species- and population-specific ways. Aerobic energy metabolism was in general down-regulated in response to temperature, hypoxia, hyposalinity and low pH stress, but other metabolic pathways were activated to respond to increased oxidative stress or to switch metabolic fuels. Thus, comparative proteomics is a powerful approach to identify functionally adaptive variation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Tomanek L.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Annual Review of Marine Science | Year: 2011

Environmental proteomics, the study of changes in the abundance of proteins and their post-translational modifications, has become a powerful tool for generating hypotheses regarding how the environment affects the biology of marine organisms. Proteomics discovers hitherto unknown cellular effects of environmental stressors such as changes in thermal, osmotic, and anaerobic conditions. Proteomic analyses have advanced the characterization of the biological effects of pollutants and identified comprehensive and pollutant-specific sets of biomarkers, especially those highlighting post-translational modifications. Proteomic analyses of infected organisms have highlighted the broader changes occurring during immune responses and how the same pathways are attenuated during the maintenance of symbiotic relationships. Finally, proteomic changes occurring during the early life stages of marine organisms emphasize the importance of signaling events during development in a rapidly changing environment. Changes in proteins functioning in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, protein stabilization and turnover, oxidative stress, and signaling are common responses to environmental change. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

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