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Oakland, California, United States

King P.G.,San Francisco State University | McGregor A.R.,California Ocean Science Trust
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management | Year: 2016

This paper examines five representative sites on the California coast to illustrate a cost-effective methodology using tools and data that local decision makers can apply to analyse the economics of sea level rise (SLR) adaptation. We estimate the costs/benefits of selected responses (e.g. no action, nourishment, seawalls) to future flooding and erosion risks exacerbated by SLR. We estimate the economic value of changes to public/private property, recreational and habitat value, and beach related spending/tax revenues. Our findings indicate that the costs of SLR are significant but uneven across communities, and there is no single best strategy for adaptation. For example, Los Angeles's Venice Beach could lose $450 million in tourism revenue by 2100 with a 1.4 m SLR scenario while San Francisco's Ocean Beach would lose $80 million, but the impacts to structures could total nearly $560 million at Ocean Beach compared to $50 million at Venice Beach. © 2015 University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Source

Water quality is a persistent problem despite decades of regulation. Theory suggests that more successful outcomes may occur if the assumption of a shared definition of the problem is questioned. This study explores whether different definitions may arise out of diverse ways of knowing and the implications including this diversity may have for policymaking. Through semi-structured interviews and participant observation, this research documents the perspectives of experiential knowledge in a fishing community in North Carolina, academic knowledge in the scientific community, and political knowledge in the management community. Results show that beginning with definition, these perspectives differ in framing water quality issues, laying responsibility, and delineating potential solutions. Those who can communicate between knowledge groups emerged as a particularly important, yet shrinking, group in establishing trust. Efforts to solve water quality issues in the future would benefit by incorporating these perspectives and fostering boundary-spanning for a more comprehensive view of water quality. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

McLaughlin K.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Weisberg S.B.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Authority | Dickson A.G.,University of California at San Diego | Hofmann G.E.,University of California at Santa Barbara | And 9 more authors.
Oceanography | Year: 2015

Numerous monitoring efforts are underway to improve understanding of ocean acidification and its impacts on coastal environments, but there is a need to develop a coordinated approach that facilitates spatial and temporal comparisons of drivers and responses on a regional scale. Toward that goal, the California Current Acidification Network (C-CAN) held a series of workshops to develop a set of core principles for facilitating integration of ocean acidification monitoring efforts on the US West Coast. The recommended core principles include: (1) monitoring measurements should facilitate determination of aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) as the common currency of comparison, allowing a complete description of the inorganic carbon system; (2) maximum uncertainty of ±0.2 in the calculation of Ωarag is required to adequately link changes in ocean chemistry to changes in ecosystem function; (3) inclusion of a variety of monitoring platforms and levels of effort in the network will insure collection of high-frequency temporal data at fixed locations as well as spatial mapping across locations; (4) physical and chemical oceanographic monitoring should be linked with biological monitoring; and (5) the monitoring network should share data and make it accessible to a broad audience. © 2015 by The Oceanography Society. All rights reserved. Source

Busch D.S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | O'Donnell M.J.,California Ocean Science Trust | Hauri C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Mach K.J.,Carnegie Institution for Science | And 3 more authors.
Oceanography | Year: 2015

Over the past decade, ocean acidification (OA) has emerged as a major concern in ocean science. The field of OA is based on certainties—uptake of carbon dioxide into the global ocean alters its carbon chemistry, and many marine organisms, especially calcifiers, are sensitive to this change. However, the field must accommodate uncertainties about the seriousness of these impacts as it synthesizes and draws conclusions from multiple disciplines. There is pressure from stakeholders to expeditiously inform society about the extent to which OA will impact marine ecosystems and the people who depend on them. Ultimately, decisions about actions related to OA require evaluating risks about the likelihood and magnitude of these impacts. As the scientific literature accumulates, some of the uncertainty related to single-species sensitivity to OA is diminishing. Difficulties remain in scaling laboratory results to species and ecosystem responses in nature, though modeling exercises provide useful insight. As recognition of OA grows, scientists’ ability to communicate the certainties and uncertainties of our knowledge on OA is crucial for interaction with decision makers. In this regard, there are a number of valuable practices that can be drawn from other fields, especially the global climate change community. A generally accepted set of best practices that scientists follow in their discussions of uncertainty would be helpful for the community engaged in ocean acidification. © 2015 by The Oceanography Society. All rights reserved. Source

King P.,San Francisco State University | McGregor A.,California Ocean Science Trust
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2012

Accurately assessing visitation patterns at California's beaches is critical; human use data is a primary input into beach assessments that inform staffing, amenities, beach nourishment and the loss of interim use following beach closures. If beach attendance estimates are inaccurate, then these assessments will be similarly inaccurate and could result in the misallocation of public resources to staff and manage coastal lands.This study assesses attendance estimates at selected beaches in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego counties by comparing official agency estimates to study estimates informed by periodic counts and sub-sampling techniques. We conclude that official counts often seriously overestimate attendance, in some cases on average by a factor over 5, and that this bias is not random but correlated with a number of factors, including the relative daily attendance load, the size of the beach, and the methodologies employed to produce estimates.The methods agencies use to estimate attendance are often based on old algorithms from unavailable studies that are unsuitable for accurately measuring visitation patterns across user groups. While our results pose serious questions to the accuracy of beach attendance estimates in southern California, there are a number of tangible and economical measures that agencies can take to evaluate and improve their current beach attendance methodologies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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