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Carp S.B.,California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of California DavisDavis | Rothwell E.S.,California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of California DavisDavis | Bourdon A.,AgroParisTechParisFrance | Freeman S.M.,California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of California DavisDavis | Bales K.L.,California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of California DavisDavis
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015

Partner preference, or the selective social preference for a pair mate, is a key behavioral indicator of social monogamy. Standardized partner preference testing has been used extensively in rodents but a single test has not been standardized for primates. The goal of this study was to develop a partner preference test with socially monogamous titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) adapted from the widely used rodent test. In Experiment 1, we evaluated the test with pairs of titi monkeys (N=12) in a three-chambered apparatus for 3hr. The subject was placed in the middle chamber, with grated windows separating it from its partner on one side and an opposite sex stranger on the other side. Subjects spent a greater proportion of time in proximity to their partners' windows than the strangers', indicating a consistent preference for the partner over the stranger. Touching either window did not differ between partners and strangers, suggesting it was not a reliable measure of partner preference. Subjects chose their partner more than the stranger during catch and release sessions at the end of the test. In Experiment 2, we compared responses of females with current partners (N=12) in the preference test with other relationship types representing former attachment bonds (N=13) and no attachment bond (N=8). Only females from established pair bonds spent significantly more time near their partner's window compared to the stranger's indicating that this measure of preference was unique to current partners. Other measures of preference did not differentiate behavior toward a current partner and other relationship types. This test reproduces behavioral patterns found in previous studies in titi monkeys highlighting the accuracy of this new partner preference test. This test can be used as a standardized measure of partner preference in titi monkeys to quantitatively study pair bonding and evaluate factors influencing partner preference. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Herrington J.A.,California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of California DavisDavis | Del Rosso L.A.,California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of California DavisDavis | Capitanio J.P.,California National Primate Research CenterUniversity of California DavisDavis
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2016

There is a general consensus that perinatal experiences help to shape infant behavior; however, relatively little is known about the effects of prenatal experience on postnatal phenotype in non-human primates. The current study sought to take advantage of a naturally occurring incident in a captive population of rhesus monkeys. Following a matrilineal overthrow in an outdoor field cage, pregnant female rhesus macaques were relocated from outdoor to indoor housing. Using data collected from the California National Primate Research Center's Biobehavioral Assessment Program, we assessed infants born to mothers that were in their first or second trimester of pregnancy during the overthrow and relocation, and compared their data with that of animals from two control groups born in the same year: indoor mother raised infants and field cage reared infants. Our results suggest that the experience of an overthrow and relocation during the first trimester elevated postnatal emotional responsiveness, while the same experience in the second trimester resulted in modified HPA axis regulation, elevated glucocorticoid output following maternal separation, and lower hematocrit levels compared to control groups. These data add to a growing body of literature that prenatal experiences represent a significant contribution to postnatal phenotypic variability. Findings such as ours have implications for studies in captive management and the management of captive rhesus monkey populations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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