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Thousand Oaks, CA, United States

California Lutheran University is a private, liberal arts university located in Thousand Oaks, a small southern Californian city. It was founded in 1959 by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, but is nonsectarian. Their mission is "to educate leaders for a global society who are strong in character and judgment, confident in their identity and vocation, and committed to service and justice." Wikipedia.


Chen X.,California Lutheran University
Climatic Change | Year: 2011

Studies have indicated that many people misunderstand climate change. Equipped with a limited mental model they inappropriately use a pattern matching heuristics to analyze climate change and mistakenly believe that we can stabilize atmospheric CO2 by keeping anthropogenic emissions at current rates. Drawing on the findings from cognitive and developmental psychology, I argue that the widespread misunderstanding of climate change may arise from an error in people's ontological assumptions. The pattern matching heuristics highlights correlations in shape and associates with a static mental model, both of which are effective for understanding objects. When people adopt the pattern matching heuristics, they may have implicitly treated climate change as an object. However, climate change belongs to a different kind of ontological existence. It is a dynamic process with temporal totality and inertia, two unique features essential to understanding climate change. Due to the sequence of cognitive development, we have developed an object bias - a tendency to treat processes as objects. This object bias can become a mental block, preventing us from adopting appropriate mental models to analyze climate change. To understand climate change, we need a fundamental transformation from an object-only ontology to a new one that properly treats objects and processes as distinct kinds. Finally, I briefly discuss strategies to foster the new ontological perspective in the discussion of climate change. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Marichal J.,California Lutheran University
First Monday | Year: 2013

This paper seeks to expand our understanding the dynamics of political SNSs by means of a content analysis of 250 politically oriented Facebook groups. Using Google Translate, I examine Facebook groups from 32 different countries in 23 different languages. Using grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) and Goffman's (1978) work on dramaturgy, I develop a theory of a digital front stage that helps explain how and why Facebook users create groups. This digital front stage is maintained, I argue, through the use of four sets of signifiers (expressivity, identity, signifiers and text length). Because Facebook is a nonymous (as opposed to anyonmous) environment, actors can seek to construct "hoped for possible (political) selves" (Markus and Nurius, 1986). Political Facebook groups allow for the performance of these "possible selves" through the formation of idealized political identities. In the conclusion, I discuss the implications of SNS applications like Facebook groups for the future of digital citizenship. © 2013, First Monday. © 2013, Jose Marichal.


Witman P.,California Lutheran University
Computer | Year: 2013

Social media, with their low direct costs and enormous reach, enable nonprofit entities like the American Red Cross and Kiva to better accomplish their missions and improve the lives of millions of people worldwide. © 2013 IEEE.


Revie D.,California Lutheran University | Salahuddin S.Z.,California Institute of Molecular Medicine
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

A number of studies conducted over many years have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect a variety of cell types. In vivo infection of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells by HCV has been frequently shown by a number of researchers. These studies have demonstrated replication of HCV by detecting the presence of both negative genomic strands and a variety of non-structural HCV proteins in infected cells. In addition, analyses of genome sequences have also shown that different cell types can harbor different HCV variants. Investigators have also done preliminary studies of which cellular genes are affected by HCV infection, but there have not yet been a sufficient number of these studies to understand the effects of infection on these cells. Analyses of in vitro HCV replication have shown that monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells can be infected by HCV from patient sera or plasma. These studies suggest that entry and cellular locations may vary between different cell types. Some studies suggest that macrophages may preferentially allow HCV genotype 1 to replicate, but macrophages do not appear to select particular hypervariable regions. Overall, these studies agree with a model where monocytes and macrophages act as an amplification system, in which these cells are infected and show few cytopathic effects, but continuously produce HCV. This allows them to produce virus over an extended time and allows its spread to other cell types. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.


Hanrahan G.,California Lutheran University
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Neural network computing demonstrates advanced analytical problem solving abilities to meet the demands of modern chemical research. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimediapageatpubs. acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.) © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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