Pasadena, CA, United States
Pasadena, CA, United States

The California Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering. Its 124-acre primary campus is located approximately 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles.Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes, and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910, and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities, and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán. The university is one among a small group of Institutes of Technology in the United States which tends to be primarily devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied science.Despite its small size, 33 Caltech alumni and faculty have won a total of 34 Nobel Prizes and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Science or Technology. There are 112 faculty members who have been elected to the National Academies. In addition, numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. Caltech managed $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research and $1.85 billion for its endowment in 2013. It also has a long standing rivalry with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology .First year students are required to live on campus, and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus house system. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations. The Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Wikipedia.


Time filter

Source Type

Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-28

A sensing device allows detection of biological quantities in ways that are minimally invasive. Micrometer or nanometer sized needles allow sensing of bodily fluids in a minimally invasive method. The device comprises electronics and power harvesting. Antennas or coils allow communication and power harvesting from an external device, which can be attached to smartphones to allow operation of a camera and camera light for biosensing.


Patent
California Institute of Technology and City Of Hope | Date: 2016-09-23

An implantable medical device, a method of manufacturing, and a method of use are described. The implantable medical device includes an absorption bag connected by a cannula to a discharge bag. The implantable medical device also includes a reservoir external to the discharge bag and attached to a surface of the discharge bag. At least a portion of the absorption bag and at least a portion of a bottom surface of the reservoir are permeable to a predefined class of small molecules, such as molecular oxygen. The reservoir can retain live cells that rely on the small molecules for survival and growth. Based on concentration of the small molecules, the small molecules permeate into the absorption bag and are transported to the discharge bag for permeation into the reservoir, thereby providing a supply of the small molecules to the live cells.


Patent
California Institute of Technology, University of Southern California and Doheny Eye Institute | Date: 2016-09-09

An implantable medical device is described. The implantable medical device includes a small molecule generator, a small molecule diffusor, and a cannula that connects the two. The small molecule generator includes an electrolyte reservoir and a set of electrodes. A first portion of the electrolyte reservoir is impermeable to a predetermined class of small molecules. A second portion of the electrolyte reservoir is permeable to the small molecules. The set of electrodes is disposed inside the electrolyte reservoir and is configured to facilitate electrolysis of the small molecules based on an electric power application to the set of electrodes and on presence of electrolyte inside the electrolyte reservoir. At least a portion of the small molecule diffusor is permeable to the small molecules.


Described herein are methods of delivering a nanoparticle across the blood brain barrier to the brain of a subject by administering to the subject a nanoparticle having a nanoparticle core and a targeting agent. A variety of targeting agents may serve to promote delivery of the described nanoparticle.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-12-07

Carrier nanoparticles comprising a polymer containing a polyol coupled to a polymer containing a boronic acid and a linkage cleavable under reducing conditions, configured to present the polymer containing a boronic acid to an environment external to the nanoparticle and related compositions, methods and systems.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-23

PC board fluidic devices for performing a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) are disclosed. The devices comprise a printed circuit board and a PCR chamber. The PCR chamber is a fluidic chamber and is located in, or is part of, the PC board. The PC board can include a coil trace heating element with a temperature sensor and controller.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-21

A repeatably reconfigurable robot, comprising at least two printed circuit board (PCB) rigid sections, at least one PCB flexible section coupled to the at least two PCB rigid sections, at least one wheel, hybrid wheel propeller, wheel and propeller, or hybrid wheel screw propeller rotatably coupled to at least one of the at least two PCB rigid sections and at least one actuator coupled to the at least two PCB rigid sections, wherein the at least one actuator folds and unfolds the repeatably reconfigurable robot.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-24

A method for forming graphene includes providing a substrate, subjecting the substrate to a reduced pressure environment, and providing a carrier gas and a carbon source. The method also includes exposing at least a portion of the substrate to the carrier gas, the carbon source, and at least one atmospheric gas and performing a CMOS compatible etching process on the at least a portion of the substrate. The method further includes performing, concurrently with the performing the CMOS compatible etching process, a CMOS compatible graphene growth process to convert a portion of the carbon source to graphene on the at least a portion of the substrate.


Patent
California Institute of Technology and Statoil | Date: 2016-09-09

The disclosure herein includes methods of preparing ceramic beads, useful as proppant materials, by mixing ceramic precursors, such as slag, fly ash, or aluminum dross, forming bead precursors from the mixture, and heating the bead precursors to drive a chemical reaction between the ceramic precursors to form the ceramic beads. The resultant ceramic beads may be generally spherical particles that are characterized by diameters of about 0.1 to 2 mm, a diametral strength of at least about 100 MPa, and a specific gravity of about 1.0 to 3.0. A coating process may optionally be used to increase a diametral strength of a proppant material. A sieving process may optionally be used to obtain a smaller range of sizes of proppant materials.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-19

Described herein are associative polymers capable of controlling a physical and/or chemical property of non-polar compositions that can be used when the non-polar composition is in a flow, and related compositions, methods and systems. Associative polymers herein described have a non-polar backbone with a longest span having a molecular weight that remains substantially unchanged under the flow conditions and functional groups presented at ends of the non-polar backbone, with a number of the functional groups presented at the ends of the non-polar backbone formed by associative functional groups capable of undergoing an associative interaction with another associative functional group with an association constant (k) such that the strength of each associative interaction is less than the strength of a covalent bond between atoms and in particular less than the strength of a covalent bond between backbone atoms.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-27

Methods of prohibiting Xist-dependent silencing of X chromosome genes include targeting the required Xist silencing complex components including SHARP, SMRT, HDAC3, SAF-A, LBR, and the respective binding sites of SHARP, LBR, and SAF-A on Xist, thereby prohibiting Xist repression, allowing for reactivation of the silenced X chromosome genes.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-06-02

Polymeric mist control materials, methods of forming polymeric mist control materials, and methods of using such materials for mist control are provided. The polymeric mist control additives are formed of molecules comprised predominantly of monomers that confer high solubility in fuel and include associative groups that attract each other in donor-acceptor manner, and are incorporated such that multiple associative groups are in close proximity (clusters), such that the clusters are separated by very long non-associative sequences.


The present disclosure is directed to methods for dehydrogenatively coupled hydrosilanes and alcohols, the methods comprising contacting an organic substrate having at least one organic alcohol moiety with a mixture of at least one hydrosilane and sodium and/or potassium hydroxide, the contacting resulting in the formation of a dehydrogenatively coupled silyl ether. The disclosure further described associated compositions and methods of using the formed products.


Patent
California Institute of Technology and University of Chicago | Date: 2014-02-10

Provided are devices comprising multivolume analysis regions, the devices being capable of supporting amplification, detection, and other processes. Also provided are related methods of detecting or estimating the presence nucleic acids, viral levels, and other biological markers of interest.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-29

This invention provides methods and systems for measuring the concentration of multiple nucleic acid sequences in a sample. The nucleic acid sequences in the sample are simultaneously amplified, for example, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the presence of an array of nucleic acid probes. The amount of amplicon corresponding to the multiple nucleic acid sequences can be measured in real-time during or after each cycle using a real-time microarray. The measured amount of amplicon produced can be used to determine the original amount of the nucleic acid sequences in the sample.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-13

A foam structure with nominally aligned arrays of carbon nanotube is described. The foam structure also includes a functionalization substance associated or attached to carbon nanotube surfaces.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-13

Syntheses of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are disclosed. The syntheses can take place on a thermally oxidized silicon surface placed inside a furnace prior to a reaction. The setup can have many variables that could affect the resulting CNT arrays, including flow rate and composition of carrier gas, flow rate and composition of precursor solution, and temperature. By varying such variables the density of the resulting CNT arrays can be controlled.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-12-12

The present invention describes chemical systems and methods for silylating heteroaromatic organic substrates using at least alkoxide base, preferably a potassium alkoxide base and at least one organodisilane and (b) at least one alkoxide base. Both methods and compositions for affecting these transformations are disclosed.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-12-12

The present invention is directed to a mild, efficient, and general direct C(sp)-H bond silylation. Various embodiments includes methods, each method comprising or consisting essentially of contacting at least one organic substrate comprising a terminal alkynyl CH bond, with a mixture of at least one organosilane and an alkali metal hydroxide, alkali metal alkoxide, or alkali metal hydride under conditions sufficient to form a silylated terminal alkynyl moiety. The methods are operable in the presence or substantially absence of transition-metal compounds. The systems associated with these methods are also disclosed.


Patent
California Institute of Technology and Calando Pharmaceuticals | Date: 2016-07-28

The invention provides a composition containing particulate composite of a polymer and a therapeutic agent. The composition also contains a complexing agent. The polymer interacts with the complexing agent in a host-guest or a guest-host interaction to form an inclusion complex. A therapeutic composition of the invention may be used to deliver the therapeutic agent and to treat various disorders. Both the polymer of the particulate composite and the complexing agent may be used to introduce functionality into the therapeutic composition. The invention also relates to a method of preparing a composition. The method combines a therapeutic agent, a polymer having host or guest functionality, and a complexing agent having guest or host functionality to form the therapeutic composition. The complexing agent forms an inclusion complex with the polymer. The invention also relates to a method of delivering a therapeutic agent. According to the method, a therapeutically effective amount of a therapeutic composition of the invention is administered to a mammal (e.g. person or animal) in recognized need of the therapeutic. Also disclosed are compounds having the formula:


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-17

Candidate compounds for specific inhibition of Rpn11 are represented by Formula 1a where each of R_(2), R_(3), R_(4), R_(5), R_(6), and R_(7 )is independently selected from hydrogen (H), substituted and unsubstituted alkyl groups, carboxyl groups, or substituted and unsubstituted carboxyamides.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-10

Compactable power generation arrays are provided. The compactable power generation arrays may include a structural substrate body having an array of solar concentrators configured to receive and re-direct solar radiation onto a plurality of photovoltaic (PV) cells. In many other embodiments the PV cells may be disposed upon a back surface of each of the solar concentrators such that an adjacent solar concentrator is configured to re-direct solar radiation onto the PV cell disposed on the back surface of the adjacent solar concentrator.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-10

Systems and methods in accordance with various embodiments of the invention implement textured metasurfaces that can provide for enhanced thermal emissivity. In one embodiment, a lightweight solar power generator includes: at least one photovoltaic cell including a photovoltaic material; at least one concentrator, configured to focus incident solar radiation onto the photovoltaic material; and at least one textured metasurface characterized by its inclusion of a plurality of microstructures, each having a characteristic lateral dimension of between approximately 1 m and approximately 100 m patterned thereon; where the at least one textured metasurface is disposed such that it is in thermal communication with at least some portion of the lightweight solar power generator that generates heat during the normal operation of the lightweight solar power generator, and is thereby configured to dissipate heat generated by the at least some portion.


Patent
California Institute of Technology and Honda Corporation | Date: 2016-08-04

Electrolyte solutions including at least one anhydrous fluoride salt and at least one non-aqueous solvent are presented. The fluoride salt includes an organic cation having a charge center (e.g., N, P, S, or O) that does not possess a carbon in the -position or does not possess a carbon in the -position having a bound hydrogen. This salt structure facilitates its ability to be made anhydrous without decomposition. Example anhydrous fluoride salts include (2,2-dimethylpropyl)trimethylammonium fluoride and bis(2,2-dimethylpropyl)dimethylammonium fluoride. Combining these fluoride salts with at least one fluorine-containing non-aqueous solvent (e.g., bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)ether; (BTFE)) promotes solubility of the salt within the non-aqueous solvents. The solvent may be a mixture of at least one non-aqueous, fluorine-containing solvent and at least one other non-aqueous, fluorine or non-fluorine containing solvent (e.g., BTFE and propionitrile or dimethoxyethane). The electrolyte solutions may be employed in electrochemical cells, such as batteries, fuel cells, electrolysis systems, and capacitors.


Patent
California Institute of Technology and Indi Molecular Inc. | Date: 2016-07-15

The present application provides stable peptide-based IL-17F capture agents and methods of use as detection agents. The application further provides methods of manufacturing IL-17F capture agents.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-26

An optical device has a first metasurface. A high-contrast pattern of the first metasurface is operable for modifying, over a first phase profile, a phase front of an incident light beam. A second metasurface, is disposed over a plane parallel to the first metasurface with a second high-contrast pattern and operable for shaping, over a second phase profile, the modified phase front of the incident light beam into a converging spherical phase front. A spacer layer, in which the modified phase front of the incident light beam diffracts, is disposed in a controllably changeable separation between the first and second metasurfaces. Controllably changing the separation between the first and the second metasurfaces by a first distance correspondingly changes the position of the focus point of the converging spherical phase front by a second distance.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-02

The disclosed technology generally relates to characterization of semiconductor structures, and more particularly to optical characterization of high-k dielectric materials. A method includes providing a semiconductor structure comprising a semiconductor and a high-k dielectric layer formed over the semiconductor, wherein the dielectric layer has electron traps formed therein. The method additionally includes at least partially transmitting an incident light having an incident energy through the high-k dielectric layer and at least partially absorbing the incident light in the semiconductor. The method additionally includes measuring a nonlinear optical spectrum resulting from the light having the energy different from the incident energy, the nonlinear optical spectrum having a first region and a second region, wherein the first region changes at a different rate in intensity compared to the second region. The method further includes determining from the nonlinear optical spectrum one or both of a first time constant from the first region and a second time constant from the second region, and determining a trap density in the high-k dielectric layer based on the one or both of the first time constant and the second time constant.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-10

The subject system hardware and methodology combine disparate cameras into a cohesive gesture recognition environment. To render an intended computer, gaming, display, etc. control function, two or more cameras with non-coaxial axes are trained on a space to detect and lock onto an object image regardless of its depth coordinate. Each camera captures one 2D view of the gesture and the plurality of 2D gestures are combined to infer the 3D input.


Patent
California Institute of Technology and The Regents Of The University Of California | Date: 2016-08-04

Processes and reaction mixtures including non-aqueous solvent mixtures are presented. Non-aqueous solvent mixtures including fluoride salt and non-aqueous solvent combinations are provided that possess high fluoride ion concentrations useful for a range of applications, including organic synthesis. Further non-aqueous solvent mixtures are provided including a salt possessing a non-fluoride anion and a non-aqueous solvent that, when contacted with aqueous fluoride-containing reagents, extract fluoride ions to form non-aqueous fluoride-ion solutions possessing high fluoride-ion concentrations. The salts include an organic cation that does not possess a carbon in the -position or does not possess a carbon in the -position having a bound hydrogen. This salt structure facilitates its ability to be made anhydrous without decomposition. Example anhydrous fluoride salts include (2,2-dimethylpropyl)trimethylammonium fluoride and bis(2,2-dimethylpropyl)dimethylammonium fluoride. The combination of these fluoride salts with at least one fluorine-containing non-aqueous solvent (e.g., bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)ether; (BTFE)) promotes solubility of the salt within the non-aqueous solvents.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-22

MIR spectroscopy systems comprising hierarchical spectral dispersion that enables fine spectral resolution and high sensitivity spectroscopy are disclosed. Hierarchical spectral dispersion is derived by employing at least two diffractive lens arrays, located on either side of a test sample, each receiving input radiation having an input spectral range and distributing the input radiation into a plurality of output signals, each having a fraction of the spectral range of the input radiation. As a result, the signal multiplication factor of the two arrays is multiplied in a manner that mitigates the propagation of wavelength harmonics through the system. In some embodiments, an emitter array comprising a plurality of spectrally selective emitters provides the input MIR radiation to a spectroscopy system. In some embodiments, spectrally selective detectors are used to detect narrow spectral components in the radiation after they have passed through the test sample.


Patent
Samsung and California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-10

A meta-structure and a tunable optical device including the same are provided. The meta-structure includes a plurality of metal layers spaced apart from one another, an active layer spaced apart from the plurality of metal layers and having a carrier concentration that is tuned according to an electric signal applied to the active layer and the plurality of metal layers, and a plurality of dielectric layers spaced apart from one another and each having one surface contacting a metal layer among the plurality of metal layers and another surface contacting the active layer.


Patent
Samsung and California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-27

A spectrometer includes a substrate; a slit which is provided on the substrate and through which light is incident onto the substrate; a metasurface including nanostructures that is configured to reflect and focus the light incident thereon through the slit, at different angles based on respective wavelengths; and a sensor which is provided on one side of the substrate that is opposite to another side of the substrate at which the metasurface is disposed, and configured to receive the light from the metasurface.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-24

Second harmonic nanoprobes for imaging biological samples and a method of using such probes to monitor the dynamics of biological process using a field resonance enhanced second harmonic (FRESH) technique are provided. The second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes are comprised of various kinds of nanocrystals that do not possess an inversion symmetry and therefore are capable of generating second harmonic signals that can then be detected by conventional two-photon microscopy for in vivo imaging of biological processes and structures such as cell signaling, neuroimaging, protein conformation probing, DNA conformation probing, gene transcription, virus infection and replication in cells, protein dynamics, tumor imaging and cancer therapy evaluation and diagnosis as well as quantification in optical imaging.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-03-06

Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement electrically tunable metasurfaces. In one embodiment, an electrically tunable metasurface reflectarray includes: a mirrored surface; a conductive layer; a dielectric layer; where the conductive layer and the dielectric layer are in direct contact, and thereby define a conductor-dielectric interface; a plurality of subwavelength antenna elements; and an electrical power source configured to establish a potential difference between at least one subwavelength antenna element and the mirrored surface; where a potential difference between a subwavelength antenna element and the mirrored surface applies an electric field to a corresponding region of the electrically tunable metasurface reflectarray; where any applied electric fields in conjunction with the geometry and the material composition of each of the subwavelength antenna elements, the conductive layer, and the dielectric layer, enable the electrically tunable metasurface reflectarray to measurably augment the propagation characteristics of incident electromagnetic waves.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-28

A silicon alignment pin is used to align successive layer of component made in semiconductor chips and/or metallic components to make easier the assembly of devices having a layered structure. The pin is made as a compressible structure which can be squeezed to reduce its outer diameter, have one end fit into a corresponding alignment pocket or cavity defined in a layer of material to be assembled into a layered structure, and then allowed to expand to produce an interference fit with the cavity. The other end can then be inserted into a corresponding cavity defined in a surface of a second layer of material that mates with the first layer. The two layers are in registry when the pin is mated to both. Multiple layers can be assembled to create a multilayer structure. Examples of such devices are presented.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-28

According to some embodiments herein, expression systems and methods for activity-dependent transcription of nucleic acids are provided. In some embodiments, adeno-associated viral vector systems comprise an immediate early gene promoter operably linked to a transcriptional activator. The transcription activator can be fused to an N-terminal portion of an immediate early gene, for example fos.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-15

A frame housing green LEDs can be positioned adjacent to a lens in order to illuminate the lens at a glancing angle. The green light allows better visualization of particulates on a surface of the lens. The particulates can then be removed with a polymer solution applied to the lens. The polymer traps the particulates, and can be removed from the lens to remove the particulates.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-24

The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.


Patent
Samsung and California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-20

An optical modulating device includes a permittivity change layer having a variable permittivity, a dielectric layer disposed on the permittivity change layer, a nanoantenna disposed on the dielectric layer, and a light-emitting structure disposed adjacent to the permittivity change layer.


Patent
Samsung and California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-29

An on-chip optical filter having Fabri-Perot resonators and a spectrometer may include a first sub-wavelength grating (SWG) reflecting layer and a second SWG reflecting layer facing each other. A plurality of Fabri-Perot resonators are formed by the first SWG reflecting layer and the second SWG reflecting layer facing each other. Each of the Fabri-Perot resonators may transmit light corresponding to a resonance wavelength of the Fabri-Perot resonator. The resonance wavelengths of the Fabri-Perot resonators may be determined according to duty cycles of grating patterns.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-10

Many embodiments of the invention include stacked power amplifier configurations that include control circuitry for sensing the operational characteristics of the power amplifiers and adjusting the current drawn by one or more of the power amplifiers to prevent any of the power amplifiers from experiencing over voltage stresses and/or to increase the operational efficiency of the power amplifiers.


An apparatus for measuring mass of one or more ions, the apparatus including an ion trap coupled to an electrostatic ion bottle (EIB).


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-08-15

A method and system provide an algebraic database management system (ADBMS) that maintains ADBMS type system. The type system includes an ADBMS type database (ATD) and provides a collection of rules that assign a type to constructs. The ATD is a catalog with each record holding typing information. An interpreter dynamically processes, at execution time, a query (that is syntactically modeled on relational algebra). The interpreter: determines inputs of the query; searches the ATD for a data type of each of the inputs, determines compatibility between each of data types of the inputs based on an operator of the query, determines a resultant of the query and a data type of the resultant (based on the operator of the query), and saves the resultant of the query by adding a new record in the catalog.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-06-15

Systems and methods for performing behavioral detection using three-dimensional tracking and machine learning in accordance with various embodiments of the invention are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention involves a the classification application that directs a microprocessor to: identify at least a primary subject interacting with a secondary subject within a sequence of frames of image data including depth information; determine poses of the subjects; extract a set of parameters describing the poses and movement of at least the primary and secondary subjects; and detect a social behavior performed by at least the primary subject and involving at least the second subject using a classifier trained to discriminate between a plurality of social behaviors based upon the set of parameters describing poses and movement.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-21

A plasmonic device having a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) waveguide and a tunable voltage applied across the TCO and a metal layer for modulating an input optical signal.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-10-31

Phononic structures, devices related to phononic structures, and methods related to fabrication of the phononic structures are described. The phononic structure can include a sheet of material, where the sheet of material can include a plurality of regions. Adjacent regions in the sheet of material can have dissimilar phononic patterns.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-01

A method of fabricating a graphene oxide material in which oxidation is confined within the graphene layer and that possesses a desired band gap is provided. The method allows specific band gap values to be developed. Additionally, the use of masks is consistent with the method, so intricate configurations can be achieved. The resulting graphene oxide material is thus completely customizable and can be adapted to a plethora of useful engineering applications.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-09-26

Data visualization systems and methods for generating 3D visualizations of a multidimensional data space are described. In one embodiment a 3D data visualization application directs a processing system to: load a set of multidimensional data points into a visualization table; create representations of a set of 3D objects corresponding to the set of data points; receive mappings of data dimensions to visualization attributes; determine the visualization attributes of the set of 3D objects based upon the selected mappings of data dimensions to 3D object attributes; update a visibility dimension in the visualization table for each of the plurality of 3D object to reflect the visibility of each 3D object based upon the selected mappings of data dimensions to visualization attributes; and interactively render 3D data visualizations of the 3D objects within the virtual space from viewpoints determined based upon received user input.


A space-based solar power station, a power generating satellite module and/or a method for collecting solar radiation and transmitting power generated using electrical current produced therefrom is provided. Power transmitters can be coordinated as a phased array and the power generated by the phased array is transmitted to one or more power receivers to achieve remote wireless power generation and delivery. In many embodiments, a reference signal is distributed within the space-based solar power station to coordinate the phased array. In several embodiments, determinations of the relative locations of the antennas in the array are generated by an array of sun sensors that estimate the shape of the module to evaluate the phase shift and/or amplitude modulation to apply to the reference signal at each power transmitter.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-21

A thermoelectric power generation technique is disclosed using one or more mechanically compliant and thermally and electrically conductive layers at the thermoelectric material interfaces to accommodate high temperature differentials and stresses induced thereby. The compliant material may be metal foam or metal graphite composite (e.g. using nickel) and is particularly beneficial in high temperature thermoelectric generators employing Zintl thermoelectric materials. The compliant material may be disposed between the thermoelectric segments of the device or between a thermoelectric segment and the hot or cold side interconnect of the device.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2014-09-17

An electro-optical circuit, includes in part, a modulator, a signal splitter, N signal paths each having one or more signal processing components, N photo-diodes and a signal combiner. The modulator modulates an optical signal using an electrical input signal. The splitter splits the modulated optical signal into N optical signals each delivered to a different one of the N paths for processing by the associated signal processing component(s). Each photo-diode converts an optical signal it receives from its associated optical signal processing component(s) to a current signal. The signal combiner combines the N current signals it receives from the N photo-diodes to generate an output current signal. The signal processing component(s) may be a variable optical delay component, a variable optical gain/attenuation component, or both thus enabling the output current signal to represent a filtered version of the electrical input signal.


Patent
Samsung and California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-07-28

An image sensor includes a substrate, thin lenses disposed on a first surface of the substrate and configured to concentrate lights incident on the first surface, and light-sensing cells disposed on a second surface of the substrate, the second surface facing the first surface, and the light-sensing cells being configured to sense lights passing through the thin lenses, and generate electrical signals based on the sensed lights. A first thin lens and second thin lens of the thin lenses are configured to concentrate a first light and a second light, respectively, of the incident lights onto the light-sensing cells, the first light having a different wavelength than the second light.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2016-11-23

A computer-based real-time streaming system under packet erasures wherein created messages can be decoded within a fixed delay form their creation is presented. Various code construction methods and corresponding hardware implementation for different cases of erasure link models are also presented.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-02-22

The invention provides methods and compositions for the expression of small RNA molecules within a cell using a lentiviral vector. The methods can be used to express doubles stranded RNA complexes. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be expressed using the methods of the invention within a cell, which are capable of down regulating the expression of a target gene through RNA interference. A variety of cells can be treated according to the methods of the invention including embryos, embryogenic stem cells, allowing for the generation of transgenic animals or animals constituted partly by the transduced cells that have a specific gene or a group of genes down regulated.


Patent
California Institute of Technology | Date: 2017-01-11

Technologies are generally described for methods and systems in a machine learning environment. In an example, a method may include receiving training data and test data. The method may also include determining a set of out of sample errors based on the training data and test data. The method may also include determining a set of gradient values based on the out of sample errors. Each gradient value may relate to a first magnitude and to a second magnitude. The first magnitude may be associated with the set of out of sample errors. The second magnitude may be associated with out of sample errors of a portion of the training data excluding a particular point of the test data. The method may also include transforming the set of gradient values into modified density data. The method may also include generating alternative training data based on the modified density data.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 1.47M | Year: 2015

Concerns are growing about how much melting occurs on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), and how much this melting will contribute to sea level rise (1). It seems that the amount of melting is accelerating and that the impact on sea level rise is over 1 mm each year (2). This information is of concern to governmental policy makers around the world because of the risk to viability of populated coastal and low-lying areas. There is currently a great scientific need to predict the amount of melting that will occur on the surface of the GrIS over the coming decades (3), since the uncertainties are high. The current models which are used to predict the amount of melting in a warmer climate rely heavily on determining the albedo, the ratio of how reflective the snow cover and the ice surface are to incoming solar energy. Surfaces which are whiter are said to have higher albedo, reflect more sunlight and melt less. Surfaces which are darker adsorb more sunlight and so melt more. Just how the albedo varies over time depends on a number of factors, including how wet the snow and ice is. One important factor that has been missed to date is bio-albedo. Each drop of water in wet snow and ice contains thousands of tiny microorganisms, mostly algae and cyanobacteria, which are pigmented - they have a built in sunblock - to protect them from sunlight. These algae and cyanobacteria have a large impact on the albedo, lowering it significantly. They also glue together dust particles that are swept out of the air by the falling snow. These dust particles also contain soot from industrial activity and forest fires, and so the mix of pigmented microbes and dark dust at the surface produces a darker ice sheet. We urgently need to know more about the factors that lead to and limit the growth of the pigmented microbes. Recent work by our group in the darkest zone of the ice sheet surface in the SW of Greenland shows that the darkest areas have the highest numbers of cells. Were these algae to grow equally well in other areas of the ice sheet surface, then the rate of melting of the whole ice sheet would increase very quickly. A major concern is that there will be more wet ice surfaces for these microorganisms to grow in, and for longer, during a period of climate warming, and so the microorganisms will grow in greater numbers and over a larger area, lowering the albedo and increasing the amount of melt that occurs each year. The nutrient - plant food - that the microorganisms need comes from the ice crystals and dust on the ice sheet surface, and there are fears that increased N levels in snow and ice may contribute to the growth of the microorganisms. This project aims to be the first to examine the growth and spread of the microorganisms in a warming climate, and to incorporate biological darkening into models that predict the future melting of the GrIS. References 1. Sasgen I and 8 others. Timing and origin of recent regional ice-mass loss in Greenland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 333-334, 293-303(2012). 2. Rignot, E., Velicogna, I., van den Broeke, M. R., Monaghan, A. & Lenaerts, J. Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sea level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L05503, doi:10.1029/2011gl046583 (2011). 3. Milne, G. A., Gehrels, W. R., Hughes, C. W. & Tamisiea, M. E. Identifying the causes of sea-level change. Nature Geosci 2, 471-478 (2009).


Geary C.,University of Aarhus | Rothemund P.W.K.,California Institute of Technology | Andersen E.S.,University of Aarhus
Science | Year: 2014

Artificial DNA and RNA structures have been used as scaffolds for a variety of nanoscale devices. In comparison to DNA structures, RNA structures have been limited in size, but they also have advantages: RNA can fold during transcription and thus can be genetically encoded and expressed in cells. We introduce an architecture for designing artificial RNA structures that fold from a single strand, in which arrays of antiparallel RNA helices are precisely organized by RNA tertiary motifs and a new type of crossover pattern. We constructed RNA tiles that assemble into hexagonal lattices and demonstrated that lattices can be made by annealing and/or cotranscriptional folding. Tiles can be scaled up to 660 nucleotides in length, reaching a size comparable to that of large natural ribozymes.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2016

The broader impact/commercial potential of this Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop novel, breakthrough enzyme-catalyzed reactions that can be applied to the production of pharmaceuticals and crop protection agents. By establishing a broadly applicable biocatalytic alternative to produce an important class of compounds called chiral cyclopropanes, Provivi will create safer, cleaner, and lower cost synthetic routes. In most cases the application of this new biocatalytic reaction will reduce the number of steps and lower the required capital investment for the synthesis of these key building blocks. The new enzyme technology being developed in this research will improve the synthesis of both existing drugs and compounds in current drug development pipelines. Further applications are envisioned in the production of new crop protection agents. The enzymes being developed have the advantage of being optimizable for each specific target product using modern molecular biology methods. Furthermore, performing the reactions in aqueous conditions will reduce the need for organic solvents, improving the sustainablility of the processes. Replacing existing chemical routes with the more efficient and sustainable enzyme-catalyzed steps will reduce the cost and improve the purity of many advanced pharmaceutical intermediates used in drug synthesis. The technical objectives of this Phase I research project are to demonstrate the application of the novel enzymatic cyclopropanation reaction to the production of a variety of commercial drug substances. Chiral cyclopropanes are key substructures found in a number of pharmaceutical and crop protection compounds. The cyclopropane-containing building blocks used in the synthesis of these compounds contain at least one, and often more than one, chiral center. Since biological activity typically requires having a single stereoisomer, chemical methods that achieve high stereoselectivity are continually sought. For cyclopropanation reactions, the existing methods typically rely on transition-metal catalysts such as rhodium bearing chiral ligands. The biocatalytic method offers clear advantages over the contemporary chemistry in that it will circumvent the use of rare, expensive metals and costly auxiliary ligands for these types of reactions. High temperatures and harsh conditions will also be avoided. In this research, high-throughput screening will be used to identify improved variants that catalyze desired cyclopropanation reactions at greater rates and with increased stereoselectivity. By developing an expanded set of cyclopropanation biocatalysts with capabilities to act on a wider range of starting materials, the scope and utility of this novel enzymatic reaction will be increased.


Patent
California Institute of Technology and Purdue Research Foundation | Date: 2016-05-09

A network and related methods for transmitting processes in a network secretly and securely is described. The network use keys, through path-key establishment and a key pool bootstrapping, to ensure that packets are transmitted and received properly and secretly in the presence of one or more adversarial nodes.


Booth I.R.,University of Aberdeen | Booth I.R.,California Institute of Technology
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Bacterial mechanosensitive channels sense the changes in lateral tension in the bilayer of the cytoplasmic membrane generated by rapid water flow into the cell. Two major structural families are found widely distributed across bacteria and archaea: MscL and MscS. Our understanding of the mechanisms of gating has advanced rapidly through genetic analysis, structural biology and electrophysiology. It is only recently that the analysis of the physiological roles of the channels has kept pace with mechanistic studies. Recent advances have increased our understanding of the role of the channels in preventing structural perturbation during osmotic transitions and its relationship to water flow across the membrane. It is to these recent developments that this review is dedicated. © 2014 The Author.


Shu J.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Zhang Y.,California Institute of Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We observe a generic connection between LHC Higgs data and electroweak baryogenesis: the particle that contributes to the CP-odd hgg or hγγ vertex would provide the CP-violating source during a first-order phase transition. It is illustrated in the two Higgs doublet model that a common complex phase controls the lightest Higgs properties at the LHC, electric dipole moments, and the CP-violating source for electroweak baryogenesis. We perform a general parametrization of Higgs effective couplings and a global fit to the LHC Higgs data. Current LHC measurements prefer a nonzero phase for tana 1 and electric dipole moment constraints still allow an order-one phase for tana β∼1, which gives sufficient room to generate the correct cosmic baryon asymmetry. We also give some prospects in the direct measurements of CP violation in the Higgs sector at the LHC. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention determine the effective toughness of a given material, and also implement materials possessing improved effective toughness values. In one embodiment, a method of determining the effective toughness of a material includes: causing a crack to propagate through the material; where the relative constant velocity and the relative overall direction are prescribed and maintained for the duration of the propagation of the crack through the material; measuring the energy release rate of the crack as it propagates through the material; and defining the effective toughness of the material as the maximum value of the measured energy release rate.


Patent
University of Rochester and California Institute of Technology | Date: 2015-02-20

An integrated optomechanical disk vibratory gyroscope device includes a mechanical oscillator having a substantially circular structure. The substantially circular structure is supported by a pillar, and mechanically isolated from a surrounding structure by a gap or slot. One or more actuators are coupled to the mechanical oscillator across the gap or slot. Each of the one or more actuators is configured to excite the mechanical oscillator in a driving mode. One or more optomechanical cavities are disposed substantially in a plane defined by the mechanical oscillator. At least one component of the one or more optomechanical cavities is disposed on or in the substantially circular structure. Each of the at least one or more optomechanical cavities configured to measure a displacement of the mechanical oscillator in a sensing mode. A method of manufacture is also described.

Loading California Institute of Technology collaborators
Loading California Institute of Technology collaborators