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Oakland, California, United States

Ritchie L.D.,University of California | Rosen N.J.,University of California at Berkeley | Fenton K.,Seattle Genetics | Au L.E.,University of California | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2015

Background: Breakfast skipping has been associated with obesity. Schools have adopted breakfast policies to increase breakfast participation. Recently, there have been concerns that students in schools where breakfast is served in the classroom may be eating two breakfasts-one at home and one at school-thereby increasing their risk of excessive energy intake and weight gain. Objective: The study objective was to compare the prevalence of not eating breakfast, eating breakfast at home or school only, and eating double breakfasts (home and school) by students in schools with distinct breakfast policies and evaluate the relationship of breakfast policy to energy intake and diet quality. Design: Baseline data were collected in 2011-2012 as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in low-resource elementary schools in California. Participants/setting: Participants were 3,944 fourth and fifth graders from 43 schools, 20 served breakfast in the cafeteria before school, 17 served breakfast in the classroom at the start of school, and 6 served "second chance" breakfast (in the cafeteria before school and again at first recess). Statistical analysis: As part of a secondary data analysis, differences in school and individual characteristics by school breakfast policy were assessed by χ2 test of independence or analysis of variance. Associations between school breakfast policy and breakfast eating patterns were assessed. Outcomes included calorie intake at breakfast, total daily calorie intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Control variables included student race/ethnicity, grade, and language spoken at home, and clustering of students by school. Results: Breakfast in the classroom was associated with fewer students not eating breakfast (P<0.001), but more eating breakfast at both home and school (P<0.001). Students in the breakfast in the classroom group did not have higher mean energy intakes from breakfast or higher daily energy intakes that were higher than other breakfast policy groups. The breakfast in the classroom group had higher overall diet quality (P=0.01). Conclusions: No evidence was found to support discontinuation of breakfast in the classroom policy on the basis of concerns that children will eat excess calories. © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Source


Ritchie L.D.,University of California | Rosen N.J.,Informing Change | Rosen N.J.,University of California at Berkeley | Fenton K.,University of California at Berkeley | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2016

Background: Breakfast skipping has been associated with obesity. Schools have adopted breakfast policies to increase breakfast participation. Recently, there have been concerns that students in schools where breakfast is served in the classroom may be eating two breakfasts-one at home and one at school-thereby increasing their risk of excessive energy intake and weight gain. Objective: The study objective was to compare the prevalence of not eating breakfast, eating breakfast at home or school only, and eating double breakfasts (home and school) by students in schools with distinct breakfast policies and evaluate the relationship of breakfast policy to energy intake and diet quality. Design: Baseline data were collected in 2011-2012 as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in low-resource elementary schools in California. Participants/setting: Participants were 3,944 fourth and fifth graders from 43 schools, 20 served breakfast in the cafeteria before school, 17 served breakfast in the classroom at the start of school, and 6 served "second chance" breakfast (in the cafeteria before school and again at first recess). Statistical analysis: As part of a secondary data analysis, differences in school and individual characteristics by school breakfast policy were assessed by χ2 test of independence or analysis of variance. Associations between school breakfast policy and breakfast eating patterns were assessed. Outcomes included calorie intake at breakfast, total daily calorie intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Control variables included student race/ethnicity, grade, and language spoken at home, and clustering of students by school. Results: Breakfast in the classroom was associated with fewer students not eating breakfast (P<0.001), but more eating breakfast at both home and school (P<0.001). Students in the breakfast in the classroom group did not have higher mean energy intakes from breakfast or higher daily energy intakes that were higher than other breakfast policy groups. The breakfast in the classroom group had higher overall diet quality (P=0.01). Conclusions: No evidence was found to support discontinuation of breakfast in the classroom policy on the basis of concerns that children will eat excess calories. © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Source


Shimada T.,California Food Policy Advocates | Ross M.,University of California at Berkeley | Campbell E.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Webb K.L.,University of California at Berkeley
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition | Year: 2013

A nonprofit policy advocacy organization and an academic research center convened a one-day meeting of 20 key stakeholders from the emergency food network (EFN) to develop policy and practice recommendations that were vltimately crafted by the advocate-researcher team and aimed at improving the nutritional quality of emergency food. The convening was informed by recent studies of food bank inventory trends and aspects of food bank culture, capacity, and practices relating to nutrition. Recommendations were developed to establish nutrition standards for government-sourced emergency food and to review tax benefits for commercial food donations. Recommendations were also developed for EFN agencies to establish organizational nutrition guidelines, adopt metrics that incorporate the nutritional quality of distributed food, and advocate improvements to federal safety net programs. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Ritchie L.D.,University of California at Berkeley | Boyle M.,Samuels And Associates | Chandran K.,California Food Policy Advocates | Spector P.,University of California at Berkeley | And 5 more authors.
Childhood Obesity | Year: 2012

Background: Nearly two million California children regularly spend time in child care. Surprisingly little is known about the nutrition environments of these settings. The aim of this study was to compare foods and beverages served to 2- to 5-year-olds by type of child care and participation in the federally funded Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Methods: A statewide survey of child care providers (n = 429) was administered. Licensed child care was divided into six categories: Head Start centers, state preschools, centers that participate in CACFP, non-CACFP centers, homes that participate in CACFP, and non-CACFP homes. Results: CACFP sites in general, and Head Start centers in particular, served more fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat/meat alternatives, and fewer sweetened beverages and other sweets and snack-type items than non-CACFP sites. Reported barriers to providing nutritious foods included high food costs and lack of training. Conclusions: CACFP participation may be one means by which reimbursement for food can be increased and food offerings improved. Further research should investigate whether promoting CACFP participation can be used to provide healthier nutrition environments in child care and prevent obesity in young children. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Patel A.I.,University of California at San Francisco | Chandran K.,California Food Policy Advocates | Hampton K.E.,ChangeLab Solutions formerly known as Public Health Law and Policy | Hecht K.,California Food Policy Advocates | And 4 more authors.
Preventing Chronic Disease | Year: 2012

Introduction: Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. Methods: We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students' intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Results: Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Conclusion: Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students' water intake at mealtimes. Source

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