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Central Valley (historical), CA, United States

Ferreira Jr. F.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Donatti R.V.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Marques M.V.R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Ecco R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | And 4 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2012

Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a vinaceous Amazon parrot based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The bird was prostrate on the bottom of the cage and died. Necropsy revealed edema and congestion of the lungs, cloudy air sacs, and mild hepatomegaly. Histopathology revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation associated with many cysts containing bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii scattered throughout. The heart had mild multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis and free tachyzoites in the muscle fibers, and the kidneys had mild interstitial nephritis and a few cysts containing bradyzoites of T. gondii. Immunohistochemistry was negative for Sarcocystis falcatula and Neospora caninum and confirmed the protozoa as T. gondii. This is the first description of T. gondii in an endangered species of a Brazilian psittacine. © American Association of Avian Pathologists 2012.


Kinde H.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System CAHFS | Goodluck H.A.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System CAHFS | Pitesky M.,Cooperative Extension | Friend T.D.,MCM Poultry Farm | And 2 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2015

Single swabs (cultured individually) are currently used in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official method for sampling the environment of commercial laying hens for the detection of Salmonella enterica ssp. serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis). The FDA has also granted provisional acceptance of the National Poultry Improvement Plan's (NPIP) Salmonella isolation and identification methodology for samples taken from table-egg layer flock environments. The NPIP method, as with the FDA method, requires single-swab culturing for the environmental sampling of laying houses for Salmonella Enteritidis. The FDA culture protocol requires a multistep culture enrichment broth, and it is more labor intensive than the NPIP culture protocol, which requires a single enrichment broth. The main objective of this study was to compare the FDA single-swab culturing protocol with that of the NPIP culturing protocol but using a four-swab pool scheme. Single and multilaboratory testing of replicate manure drag swab sets (n = 525 and 672, respectively) collected from a Salmonella Enteritidis-free commercial poultry flock was performed by artificially contaminating swabs with either Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4, 8, or 13a at one of two inoculation levels: low, x¯ =2.5 CFU (range 2.5-2.7), or medium, x¯ =10.0 CFU (range 7.5-12). For each replicate, a single swab (inoculated), sets of two swabs (one inoculated and one uninoculated), and sets of four swabs (one inoculated and three uninoculated), testing was conducted using the FDA or NPIP culture method. For swabs inoculated with phage type 8, the NPIP method was more efficient (P < 0.05) for all swab sets at both inoculation levels than the reference method. The single swabs in the NPIP method were significantly (P < 0.05) better than four-pool swabs in detecting Salmonella Enteritidis at the lower inoculation level. In the collaborative study (n = 13 labs) using Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 13a inoculated swabs, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the FDA method (single swabs) and the pooled NPIP method (four-pool swabs). The study concludes that the pooled NPIP method is not significantly different from the FDA method for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in drag swabs in commercial poultry laying houses. Consequently based on the FDA's Salmonella Enteritidis rule for equivalency of different methods, the pooled NPIP method should be considered equivalent. Furthermore, the pooled NPIP method was more efficient and cost effective. © 2015 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Mete A.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System CAHFS | Giannitti F.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System CAHFS | Barr B.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System CAHFS | Woods L.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System CAHFS | Anderson M.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System CAHFS
Avian Diseases | Year: 2013

A 5-yr retrospective study was conducted to characterize the spectrum of diseases causing mortality in 1301 backyard chickens submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory in Davis, California. Infectious diseases were diagnosed in the majority (60.4%). Viral diseases comprised 50% of the infectious entities, followed by bacterial diseases with an incidence of 39%. Marek's disease in the viral group and Escherichia coli in the bacterial group were the most commonly diagnosed infectious diseases. Zoonotic agents including Aspergillus sp., Salmonella sp., Listeria sp., Mycobacterium sp., Candida sp., and Baylisascaris sp. were detected in 46 (3.5%) birds. Among noninfectious conditions, fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome and reproductive tract adenocarcinoma were the leading causes of mortality. This analysis provides an overview of backyard chicken diseases for practitioners and avian pathologists working with backyard poultry. In addition, this study illustrates that backyard chickens do not seem to pose a major risk to public health, although zoonoses do comprise a notable portion (5.9% of all infectious cases) of isolated agents. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.

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