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Aly S.S.,University of California at Davis | Anderson R.J.,Animal Health Branch | Adaska J.M.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory | Jiang J.,University of California at Davis | Gardner I.A.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Dairy Science

The association between Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and milk production was estimated on 2 California dairies using longitudinal data from 5,926 cows. Both study herds had moderate MAP seroprevalence, housed cows in freestalls, and had Johne's disease control programs. Cow MAP status was determined using both serum ELISA and fecal culture results from cows tested at dry-off and from whole-herd tests. Potential confounders were evaluated based on a causal diagram. Mixed models with 2 functions (splines) for days in milk (DIM) representing milk production pre- and postpeak used in similar studies were further modified to use each cow's observed DIM at peak and lactation length. Cows that were seropositive produced 2.5. kg less 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per day than their seronegative herdmates. In addition, cows that were fecal-culture positive by liquid culture and confirmed by PCR produced 2.2. kg less 4% FCM per day than their fecal-culture negative herdmates. The decrease in milk production in MAP test-positive compared with test-negative cows started in the second lactation. A switch in MAP status in either ELISA or fecal culture results from positive to negative had no significant association with milk production. Modified DIM functions that used the observed DIM at peak had better model fit than another function that assumed a fixed peak at 60 DIM. Cows that tested positive for MAP on serum ELISA or fecal culture produced less milk than cows that tested negative, and the association between MAP and milk production was not confounded by mastitis, elevated somatic cell counts, or uterine or metabolic cow conditions. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Krout-Greenberg N.D.,University of California at Davis | Puschner B.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory | Davidson M.G.,Feed | DePeters E.J.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Dairy Science

Mycotoxins are naturally occurring environmental contaminants recognized worldwide in a variety of food and feed products. Produced as secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi, mycotoxins can have acute and chronic effects. Differing seasonal weather patterns and harvesting and storage conditions put corn grain at high risk for mycotoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure posed to California livestock from whole corn. Random samples (n = 50) of whole corn were collected and analyzed for 6 different mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin), and zearalenone. The samples represented a cross section of the corn entering California from various corn-growing states (n = 43) as well as additional samples from California-grown corn (n = 7). The experiment was a randomized sampling design. Over the course of a 6-mo period, 16 trains in California (100-110 railcars) and 5 California grain elevators were randomly sampled. Aflatoxins were detected in 14 samples, with 1 sample containing a concentration of 41.3 μg/kg (as-is basis), which was above the action level of 20 μg/kg for corn fed to dairy cattle. The average concentration of aflatoxins for the 13 samples below the regulatory action level was 8.69 μg/kg (range 4.67 to 13.82 μg/kg). Deoxynivalenol was found in 15 samples and averaged 553 μg/kg (range 340 to 1,072 μg/kg), which was below the federal advisory level of 5,000 μg/kg for grain fed to dairy cattle. Fumonisins were found in 38 samples and averaged 1,687 μg/kg (range 435 to 4,843 μg/kg), which was below the federal guidance level of 30,000 μg/kg in corn for dairy cattle. Ochratoxins, T-2 toxins, and zearalenone were not detected in any samples of whole corn. Fumonisins were the most prevalent mycotoxins found. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Chen J.,University of Pittsburgh | Ma M.,University of Pittsburgh | Uzal F.A.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory | McClane B.A.,University of Pittsburgh
Gut Microbes

Clostridium perfringens causes enteritis and enterotoxemia in humans and livestock due to prolific toxin production. In broth culture, C. perfringens uses the Agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate production of toxins important for enteritis/enterotoxemia, including beta toxin (CPB), enterotoxin, and epsilon toxin (ETX). The VirS/VirR two-component regulatory system (TCRS) also controls CPB production in broth cultures. Both the Agr-like QS and VirS/VirR systems are important when C. perfringens senses enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and responds by upregulating CPB production; however, only the Agr-like QS system is needed for host cell-induced ETX production. These in vitro observations have pathophysiologic relevance since both the VirS/VirR and Agr-like QS signaling systems are required for C. perfringens strain CN3685 to produce CPB in vivo and to cause enteritis or enterotoxemia. Thus, apparently upon sensing its presence in the intestines, C. perfringens utilizes QS and TCRS signaling to produce toxins necessary for intestinal virulence. © 2014 Landes Bioscience. Source

Poppenga R.H.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory | Pitman J.,Research and Survey Office
Journal of Wildlife Diseases

The perception of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) both as a nuisance species and a keystone species presents a significant challenge to land, livestock, and wildlife managers. Anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range. Chlorophacinone, and to a lesser extent zinc phosphide, are widely used in northwestern Kansas for controlling black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations. Although zinc phosphide poisoning of gallinaceous birds is not uncommon, there are few published accounts of nontarget chlorophacinone poisoning of wildlife. We report three mortality events involving nontarget rodenticide poisoning in several species, including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), a raccoon (Procyon lotor), and an American badger (Taxidea taxus). This includes the first documentation of chlorophacinone intoxication in wild turkeys and an American badger in the literature. The extent of nontarget poisoning in this area is currently unknown and warrants further investigation. © Wildlife Disease Association 2011. Source

Fulton R.W.,Oklahoma State University | d'Offay J.M.,Oklahoma State University | Eberle R.,Oklahoma State University | Moeller R.B.,California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory | And 6 more authors.

Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) causes significant disease in cattle. Control programs in North America incorporate vaccination with modified live viral (MLV) or killed (KV) vaccine. BoHV-1 strains are isolated from diseased animals or fetuses after vaccination. There are markers for differentiating MLV from field strains using whole-genome sequencing and analysis identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using multiple primer sets and sequencing of products permits association of BoHV-1 isolates with vaccines. To determine association between vaccine virus and strains isolated from clinical cases following vaccination, we analyzed 12 BoHV-1 isolates from animals with various clinical syndromes; 9 corresponded to BoHV-1.1 respiratory group. The remaining three corresponded to BoHV-1.2b, typically found in genital tracts of cattle. Four BoHV-1 isolates were identical to a vaccine strain; three were from post-vaccination abortion episodes with typical herpetic lesions whose dams had received MLV vaccine during pregnancy, and one from a heifer given a related MLV vaccine; Sequences of two respiratory isolates perfectly matched mutations characterizing RLB106 strain, a temperature sensitive mutant used in intranasal and parenteral vaccines. The last three respiratory strains clearly appeared related to a group of MLV vaccines. Previously the MLV vaccines were grouped into four groups based on SNPs patterns. In contrast with above-mentioned isolates that closely matched SNP patterns of their respective MLV vaccine virus, these 3 strains both lacked some and possessed a number of additional mutations compared to a group of MLV vaccine viral genome. Finding BoHV-1.2b in respiratory cases indicates focus should be given BoHV-1.2b as an emerging virus or a virus not recognized nor fully characterized in BRD. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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