Neurourology and Urodynamics | Year: 2016
AIMS: This is a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of using diagnostic cardiac electrophysiology catheters for recording intrinsic urinary bladder electrical activity and for electrical pacing capture of bladder tissue. METHODS: During cystoscopy, a curved quadripolar catheter was introduced and contact was made with the right and left halves of the dome and trigone in adult female patients undergoing cystoscopy. Electrical activity was recorded, using a commercially available cardiac electrophysiologic recording system, before and during pacing at 0.5-3.0Hz. RESULTS: Apparent spontaneous electrical depolarizations were detected in both the trigone and the dome. The amplitude of these depolarizations was in the microVolt range. During pacing, local electrical capture was noted in the trigone, but not in the dome. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous low-amplitude electrical activity was detected in the bladder through the use of commercially available cardiac electrophysiology equipment. While these low-level signals could represent noise, the voltage, and morphology resemble detrusor muscle action potentials previously seen in animal studies. Pacing induced local electrical capture in the trigone but not the dome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chiosea S.I.,Depatment of PathologyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburgh |
Thompson L.D.R.,California |
Mahaffey A.M.,Depatment of PathologyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburgh |
Miller C.,Depatment of PathologyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburgh |
Gooding W.E.,Biostatistics FacilityUniversity of Pittsburgh Cancer InstitutePittsburgh
Cancer | Year: 2016
BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that histogenetic classification of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) could account for de novo tumors and those with morphologic or molecular evidence (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 [PLAG1], high-mobility group AT hook 2 [HMGA2] rearrangement, amplification) of pleomorphic adenoma (PA). METHODS: SDCs (n = 66) were reviewed for morphologic evidence of PA. PLAG1 and HMGA2 alterations were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PLAG1-positive tumors were tested by FISH for fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) rearrangement. Thirty-nine tumors were analyzed using a commercial panel for mutations and copy number variations in 50 cancer-related genes. RESULTS: On the basis of combined morphologic and molecular evidence of PA, 4 subsets of SDC emerged: 1) carcinomas with morphologic evidence of PA but intact PLAG1 and HMGA2 (n = 22); 2) carcinomas with PLAG1 alteration (n = 18) or 3) HMGA2 alteration (n = 12); and 4) de novo carcinomas, without morphologic or molecular evidence of PA (n = 14). The median disease-free survival was 37 months (95% confidence interval, 28.4-45.6 months). Disease-free survival and other clinicopathologic parameters did not differ for the subsets defined above. Combined Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit α (HRAS/PIK3CA) mutations were observed predominantly in de novo carcinomas (5 of 8 vs 2 of 31 tumors; P = .035). Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) copy number gain was not observed in de novo carcinomas (0 of 8 vs 12 of 31 tumors; P = .08). Tumor protein 53 (TP53) mutations were more common in SDC ex pleomorphic adenomas than in de novo carcinomas (17 of 31 vs 1 of 8 tumors; P = .033). CONCLUSIONS: The genetic profile of SDC varies with the absence or presence of pre-existing PA and its cytogenetic signature. Most de novo SDCs harbor combined HRAS/PIK3CA mutations and no ERBB2 amplification. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Yee K.K.,Monell Chemical Senses CenterPhiladelphia |
Wysocki C.J.,Monell Chemical Senses CenterPhiladelphia |
Van Valkenburgh B.,California
Anatomical Record | Year: 2016
Although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. In this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array of species that include the gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote, and white-tailed deer. Results show that much more of the nose is lined with olfactory epithelium in the smallest species (gray squirrel) than in the larger species. In two species with similar body masses, bobcat and coyote, the foreshortened felid snout influences turbinal size and results in a decrease of olfactory epithelium on the ethmoturbinals relative to the longer canine snout. Ethmoturbinal surface area exceeds that of the maxilloturbinals in all four sampled animals, except the white-tailed deer, in which the two are similar in size. Combining our results with published data from a broader array of mammalian noses, it is apparent that olfactory epithelial surface area is influenced by body mass, but is also affected by aspects of life history, such as diet and habitat, as well as skull morphology, itself a product of multiple compromises between various functions, such as feeding, vision, and cognition. The results of this study warrant further examination of other mammalian noses to broaden our evolutionary understanding of nasal fossa anatomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed | University of Kansas Medical Center, New York University, Oregon Health And Science University, Johns Hopkins University and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurosurgery. Spine | Year: 2016
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to isolate whether the effect of a baseline clinical history of depression on outcome is independent of associated physical disability and to evaluate which mental health screening tool has the most utility in determining 2-year clinical outcomes after adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. METHODS Consecutively enrolled patients with ASD in a prospective, multicenter ASD database who underwent surgical intervention with a minimum 2-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. A subset of patients who completed the Distress and Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) was also analyzed. The effects of categorical baseline depression and DRAM classification on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), SF-36, and Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22r) were assessed using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. The probability of achieving 1 minimal clinically important difference (MCID) on the ODI based on the DRAMs Modified Somatic Perceptions Questionnaire (MSPQ) score was estimated. RESULTS Of 267 patients, 66 (24.7%) had self-reported preoperative depression. Patients with baseline depression had significantly more preoperative back pain, greater BMI and Charlson Comorbidity Indices, higher ODIs, and lower SRS-22r and SF-36 Physical/Mental Component Summary (PCS/MCS) scores compared with those without self-reported baseline depression. They also had more severe regional and global sagittal malalignment. After adjusting for these differences, preoperative depression did not impact 2-year ODI, PCS/MCS, or SRS-22r totals (p > 0.05). Compared with those in the normal DRAM category, distressed somatics (n = 11) had higher ODI (+23.5 points), lower PCS (-10.9), SRS-22r activity (-0.9), and SRS-22r total (-0.8) scores (p 0.01), while distressed depressives (n = 25) had lower PCS (-8.4) and SRS-22r total (-0.5) scores (p < 0.05). After adjusting for important covariates, each additional point on the baseline MSPQ was associated with a 0.8-point increase in 2-year ODI (p = 0.03). The probability of improving by at least 1 MCID in 2-year ODI ranged from 77% to 21% for MSPQ scores 0-20, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A baseline clinical history of depression does not correlate with worse 2-year outcomes after ASD surgery after adjusting for baseline differences in comorbidities, health-related quality of life, and spinal deformity severity. Conversely, DRAM improved risk stratification of patient subgroups predisposed to achieving suboptimal surgical outcomes. The DRAMs MSPQ was more predictive than MCS and SRS mental domain for 2-year outcomes and may be a valuable tool for surgical screening.
Seto A.H.,California |
Anwaruddin S.,University of Pennsylvania |
Shah B.,New York University |
Tremmel J.A.,Stanford University
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2016
The SCAI Publications Committee and Emerging Leadership Mentorship (ELM) Fellows concisely summarize and provide context on the most important coronary trials presented at large international meetings in 2015, including the MATRIX, ABSORB, and TOTAL trials. The intent is to allow quick assimilation of trial results into interventional practice, and enable busy interventional cardiologists to stay up to date. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alexander-Bloch A.,University of Connecticut |
Clasen L.,Developmental Neurogenomics UnitChild Psychiatry BranchNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesda |
Stockman M.,Developmental Neurogenomics UnitChild Psychiatry BranchNational Institute of Mental HealthBethesda |
Ronan L.,Brain Mapping UnitUniversity of CambridgeCambridge United Kingdom |
And 3 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2016
While the potential for small amounts of motion in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans to bias the results of functional neuroimaging studies is well appreciated, the impact of in-scanner motion on morphological analysis of structural MRI is relatively under-studied. Even among "good quality" structural scans, there may be systematic effects of motion on measures of brain morphometry. In the present study, the subjects' tendency to move during fMRI scans, acquired in the same scanning sessions as their structural scans, yielded a reliable, continuous estimate of in-scanner motion. Using this approach within a sample of 127 children, adolescents, and young adults, significant relationships were found between this measure and estimates of cortical gray matter volume and mean curvature, as well as trend-level relationships with cortical thickness. Specifically, cortical volume and thickness decreased with greater motion, and mean curvature increased. These effects of subtle motion were anatomically heterogeneous, were present across different automated imaging pipelines, showed convergent validity with effects of frank motion assessed in a separate sample of 274 scans, and could be demonstrated in both pediatric and adult populations. Thus, using different motion assays in two large non-overlapping sets of structural MRI scans, convergent evidence showed that in-scanner motion-even at levels which do not manifest in visible motion artifact-can lead to systematic and regionally specific biases in anatomical estimation. These findings have special relevance to structural neuroimaging in developmental and clinical datasets, and inform ongoing efforts to optimize neuroanatomical analysis of existing and future structural MRI datasets in non-sedated humans. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Margason R.,California |
AIAA Journal | Year: 2015
Computational solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations have been used to understand the performance of thrust-augmenting ejectors for vertical and short takeoff and landing aircraft. These solutions show how ejector performance depends on the principle ejector design parameters, including the ejector inlet area, the diffuser exit area, and the length of the ejector duct, as well as the type and configuration of the primary jet nozzles. It is concluded that there is a relatively sharp peak in ejector performance that occurs over a relatively narrow range of inlet area ratios where the character of the flow changes from duct flow to free jet flow. Both the peak performance and the optimum inlet area ratio are seen to increase with the length of the ejector duct. Both increasing the jet entrainment rate and the addition of wall jets are shown to enhance the performance of short aircraft ejectors. © 2015 by H. Hafsteinsson. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.
Nielson C.,California |
McClain R.,Jem Walnut Creek Inc. |
Hennessey D.,San Francisco
ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers) | Year: 2015
Interim Design and Tactical Urbanism should be considered as tools to provide real world tests of designs in three-dimensions. As most Interim Design and Tactical Urbanism projects evolve from a more permanent, higher-cost design proposal, these tools can both test the community's long-term vision for a project and ensure that the community's needs are addressed in the near-term. Some Interim Designs will reduce or remove the clear recovery zone, which should be discussed with local engineers to ensure the modifications are appropriate to the context. Similarly, consideration must be given to the duration of a design. The City prepared full construction drawings for the Interim Design solution, consisting of a stamped set of striping and signing plans. They detailed the spacing and location of landscape planters, soft hit posts, colorized curb extensions, and other striping.
Chang J.C.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory |
Sebastian A.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory |
Murugesh D.K.,Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory |
Hatsell S.,Regeneron PharmaceuticalsTarrytown |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2016
Joint injury causes post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). About ∼50% of patients rupturing their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) will develop PTOA within 1-2 decades of the injury, yet the mechanisms responsible for the development of PTOA after joint injury are not well understood. In this study, we examined whole joint gene expression by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) at 1 day, 1-, 6-, and 12 weeks post injury, in a non-invasive tibial compression (TC) overload mouse model of PTOA that mimics ACL rupture in humans. We identified 1446 genes differentially regulated between injured and contralateral joints. This includes known regulators of osteoarthritis such as MMP3, FN1, and COMP, and several new genes including Suco, Sorcs2, and Medag. We also identified 18 long noncoding RNAs that are differentially expressed in the injured joints. By comparing our data to gene expression data generated using the surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) PTOA model, we identified several common genes and shared mechanisms. Our study highlights several differences between these two models and suggests that the TC model may be a more rapidly progressing model of PTOA. This study provides the first account of gene expression changes associated with PTOA development and progression in a TC model. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
American Journal of Forensic Psychology | Year: 2015
Practice guides to mental health assessments of competence to stand trial do not use the few detailed court rulings involving extensive litigation of competency to stand trial issues as instructive guides on matters focused on by judges. Forensic examiners and lawyers may find these rulings useful sources of foundational information. This article presents an experienced criminal defense lawyer's review of rulings that forensic examiners and lawyers should consider especially when the issue of competency to stand trial is likely to be contested and litigated. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Forensic Psychology.