Caldwell Biomedical Electronics

Finleyville, PA, United States

Caldwell Biomedical Electronics

Finleyville, PA, United States
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Hahn A.W.,University of Missouri | Morton Caldwell W.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
50th Annual Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium and 50th International ISA Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation Symposium 2013 | Year: 2013

We have developed an ultra-flexible skin electrode to monitor a patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) during daily activity. This electrode consists of a 1.5 micrometer thick polyester film printed with electro-conductive paint. The electrode is attached to the outside of a polyethylene bag filled with a high viscoelastic fluid. When the electrode is placed securely on the skin, it correspondingly changes its shape, and electrode movement artifact is thereby decreased. The electrode improves long-term recording of the ECG by maintaining capacitance-coupled impedance between the electrode and the skin. © 2013 by ISA - instrumentation Systems & Automation Society.


Hahn A.W.,University of Missouri | Morton Caldwell W.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
50th Annual Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium and 50th International ISA Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation Symposium 2013 | Year: 2013

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive degeneration of motor neurons. Patients with the disease lose their ability to speak and to use their hands as the disease progresses. We have developed a new electronic communication system that enables communication by blinking of the eyes. The system consists of a light emitting diode (LED), two silicone rubber electrodes, an electrooculogram (EOG) recorder, a microcontroller, a sound reproduction board, a pillow speaker and a low power mobile phone. The two silicone rubber electrodes record the EOG induced by blinking the eyes synchronized with LED flashing. The EOG is amplified by the EOG recorder. The microcontroller detects the blinking from the amplified EOG, and then their meanings are confirmed by voice. After that, the patient's intention is transmitted to the nurse by a low power mobile phone so the care giver is kept in the loop. © 2013 by ISA - instrumentation Systems & Automation Society.


Matsuoka S.,International Trinity College | Caldwell W.M.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS | Year: 2011

We have developed a new mobile phone-based safety support system for transmitting information of a wandering elderly person's location and the environmental sounds around that person. The system consists of a wearable sensor and a conventional desktop PC with Internet access acting as the server computer. The wearable sensor, which is attached behind the neck of the elderly person's shirt, is composed of a low transmitting power mobile phone (W-SIM), a small microphone and a one chip microcontroller. The wandering elderly person's location is identified within 100 m from the mobile phone company's antenna ID via the W-SIM. The caregiver sets the elderly person's movement area by specialized computer software. When the elderly person goes out of the area, the sensor automatically records the environmental sound around the wandering elderly person for the presumption of the person's situation with the small microphone. The W-SIM sends both the wandering elderly person's location and the environmental sound to the server computer. The server computer informs automatically the caregiver by the e-mail. The caregiver can monitor the sound and the map of the wandering person's location via Internet. The sound enables the presumption of an accurate location and the situation of the wandering elderly person. © 2011 IEEE.


Hahn A.W.,University of Missouri | Caldwell W.M.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
51st Annual Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium, RMBS 2014 and 51st International ISA Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation Symposium 2014 | Year: 2014

We have developed an ultrasonic stride length measuring system for analyzing the human gait. All elements of the system are quite small and each fit into an appropriate package. An ultrasonic transmitter, a digital compass, a radio transmitter and a microcontroller are attached to the subject's heel on the right shoe and in the direction of the left shoe. Two ultrasonic receivers, a digital compass, a radio receiver, a microcontroller and a 1GB SD memory card are installed on the left shoe. The ultrasonic receivers are attached to the toe and heel in the direction of the right shoe. The walking direction is thus detected by the compass attached on the right and left shoes, respectively. The stride length is detected by the difference between the radio wave and ultrasonic propagation velocities. The stride length is corrected by the detected walking direction, and then the corrected stride length is stored in the SD memory card. When downloaded, the memory card gives the accurate stride length which then is used to characterize the subject's gait during daily activity .


Caldwell W.M.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS | Year: 2012

We have developed a remote drip infusion monitoring system for use in hospitals. The system consists of several infusion monitoring devices and a central monitor. The infusion monitoring device employing a Bluetooth module can detect the drip infusion rate and an empty infusion solution bag, and then these data are sent to the central monitor placed at the nurses' station via the Bluetooth. The central monitor receives the data from several infusion monitoring devices and then displays graphically them. Therefore, the developed system can monitor intensively the drip infusion situation of the several patients at the nurses' station. © 2012 IEEE.


Hahn A.W.,University of Missouri | Caldwell W.M.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation | Year: 2010

A new drip infusion solution monitoring system has been developed for hospital and care facility use. The system detects and counts the fall of each drip chamber drop of fluid. Two non-contacting copper foil electrodes are used; one wrapped around the infusion supply polyvinyl-chloride tube under the solution bag and another around the drip chamber, forming two capacitors. Drip infusion fluids have electrical conductivity, so the capacitors are a series-connected electrical impedance. A thirty kHz sine wave is applied to the infusion tube electrode and the capacity-coupled signal on the drip chamber electrode is the transducer output. When an infusion fluid drop is forming, its diameter, and therefore drip chamber capacitance, are increasing, causing change in the output signal. When the drop reaches sufficient diameter to fall, the drip chamber capacitance decreases, which briefly returns the output signal to baseline. Therefore, the growth, fall, and drip rate of each drop of fluid can be detected from the output signal waveform. The system also has advantages of being insensitive to ambient light type and intensity, and detects when the infusion bag is empty. Copyright 2010 ISA. All Rights Reserved.


Hahn A.W.,University of Missouri | Caldwell W.M.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation | Year: 2012

We have developed a new ultrasonic stride length measuring system for analyzing the human gait. An ultrasonic transmitter, a radio transmitter, a pressure sensor and microcontroller are attached to the subject's heel on the right shoe and in the direction of the left shoe. Two ultrasonic receivers, a radio receiver, a microcontroller and a 1GB SD memory card are installed on the left shoe. Ultrasonic receivers are attached to the toe and heel, in the direction of the right shoe. When the right foot contacts the ground, its heel-mounted ultrasonic and radio transmitters simultaneously transmit to the left shoe. However, radio propagation velocity is far faster than ultrasonic velocity. Therefore, the radio wave acts as a start signal to the radio receiver of the left shoe, indicating the start of ultrasound transmission from the right shoe. Upon receiving the start signal, the microcontroller timer starts to measure each ultrasound propagation time from the right shoe to the left shoe. Distance between right and left shoes is calculated with the time and ultrasound velocity and stored in the SD memory card. Stride length is calculated with a cosine function, by using the obtained distances and the distance between the toe and heel of the left shoe, by a conventional computer. The stride length can then be used for many characterizations of the subject's gait. © 2012. All Rights Reserved.


Caldwell W.M.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS | Year: 2011

A daily living activity remote monitoring system has been developed for supporting solitary elderly people. The monitoring system consists of a tri-axis accelerometer, six low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit microcontroller (MC), a 1GB SD memory card (SDMC) and a 2.4 GHz low transmitting power mobile phone (PHS). The tri-axis accelerometer attached to the subject's chest can simultaneously measure dynamic and static acceleration forces produced by heart sound, respiration, posture and behavior. The heart rate, respiration rate, activity, posture and behavior are detected from the dynamic and static acceleration forces. These data are stored in the SD. The MC sends the data to the server computer every hour. The server computer stores the data and makes a graphic chart from the data. When the caregiver calls from his/her mobile phone to the server computer, the server computer sends the graphical chart via the PHS. The caregiver's mobile phone displays the chart to the monitor graphically. © 2011 IEEE.


Caldwell W.M.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC'10 | Year: 2010

We have developed a non-invasive system for monitoring cardiac vibrations, respiration and body movement of in-bed hospitalized patients and elderly people who need constant care. These physiological parameters are recorded by an infrared emitting diode and a photo transistor, which are attached between spring coils in bed mattress. The infrared emitting diode diffuses infrared light into the mattress. The diffusion of this energy is changed by mattress shape variations and spring coil vibrations, which modulate the intensity of the received infrared signal. The intensity is also modulated by physiological parameters such as heart pulse, respiration and body movement. The physiological parameters are detected from the received infrared intensity signal by low, high and band pass filters. © 2010 IEEE.


Morton Caldwell W.,Caldwell Biomedical Electronics
2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC'10 | Year: 2010

A new drip infusion solution monitoring system has been developed for hospital and care facility use. The system detects the fall of each drip chamber drop of fluid and also a free-flow situation. Three non-contacting copper foil electrodes are used. The electrodes are wrapped around the infusion supply polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube from the solution bag, the drip chamber, and the infusion PVC tube from the drip chamber. Drip infusion fluids have electrical conductivity, so a capacitor is formed between the infusion fluid and each electrode. A thirty kHz sine wave is applied to the electrode wrapped around the infusion supply PVC tube from the solution bag. The capacity-coupled signal on the drip chamber electrode is the transducer output. When an infusion fluid drop is forming, its length and diameter, and therefore the drip chamber capacitance, are increasing, causing change in the output signal. The drip chamber electrode can detect the fall of each drip chamber drop of fluid. When the infusion solution becomes free-flow, an infusion fluid drop is not forming and the infusion fluid flows continuously. Therefore, the capacitance of the electrode around drip chamber does not change the output signal. On the other hand, the electrode wrapped around the infusion supply polyvinyl chloride tube under the drip chamber detects the thirty kHz sine wave conducted by the infusion fluid. The drip chamber electrodes and the infusion supply PVC tube under the drip chamber detect each drop of fluid and free-flow, respectively. © 2010 IEEE.

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