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Bhuniya S.,Midnapore Medical College and Hospital | Sabyasachi C.,Calcutta Medical College and Hospital | Indranil S.,Burdwan Medical College and Hospital | Sumit R.T.,Rg Kar Medical College And Hospital | Mita S.,Rg Kar Medical College And Hospital
Annals of Thoracic Medicine | Year: 2012

Context: Prevalence of tuberculous pleural effusion is very high in the Asian subcontinent but very few studies have come up from this part of the world about the course of recovery of pulmonary functions after institution of anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) and thoracentesis. Aims: To study initial lung function impairment, changes over time after institution of ATT and thoracentesis and residual abnormalities left at the end of six months of treatment. Settings and Design: Randomized open level interventional study over two years in 52 patients at a tertiary level teaching hospital. Methods: The study population was divided into two equal groups, A (therapeutic thoracentesis) and B (diagnostic thoracentesis). Spirometry, chest radiograph and ultrasonography of thorax were done initially and at each follow-up visit up to six months. Statistical analysis was done (P value < 0.05 considered significant). Results: Both groups were comparable initially. After six months none in group A and five patients in group B had minimal pleural effusion. During follow up, mean percentage predicted of FEV1 and FVC increased more in A than in B and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pleural thickening, initially absent in both groups, was found to be more in B as compared to A at subsequent follow-up visits and this was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Thoracentesis should be considered in addition to anti-TB treatment, especially in large effusions, in order to relieve dyspnea, avoid possibility of residual pleural thickening and risk of developing restrictive functional impairment.

Chakrabarti S.,ESI PGIMSR | Datta A.S.,IPGME and R | Hira M.,Calcutta Medical College and Hospital
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: Though open surgical biopsy is the procedure of choice for the diagnosis of bone tumors, many disadvantages are associated with this approach. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of bony tumors and tumor-like lesions which may be conducted in centers where facilities for surgical biopsies are inadequate. Methods: The study population consisted of 51 cases presenting with a skeletal mass. After clinical evaluation, radiological correlation was done to assess the nature and extent of each lesion. Fine needle aspiration was performed aseptically and smears were prepared. Patients subsequently underwent open surgical biopsy and tissue samples were obtained for histopathological examination. Standard statistical methods were applied for analysis of data. Results: Adequate material was not obtained even after repeated aspiration in seven cases, six of which were benign. Among the remaining 44 cases, diagnosis of malignancy was correctly provided in 28 (93.3%) out of 30 cases and categorical diagnosis in 20 (66.67%). Interpretation of cytology was more difficult in cases of benign and tumor-like lesions, with a categorical opinion only possible in seven (50%) cases. Statistical analysis showed FNAC with malignant tumors to have high sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (92.9%) and positive predictive value of 96.6%, whereas the negative predictive value was 86.7%. Conclusion: FNAC should be included in the diagnostic workup of a skeletal tumor because of its simplicity and reliability. However, a definitive pathologic diagnosis heavily depends on compatible clinical and radiologic features which can only be accomplished by teamwork. The cytological technique applied in this study could detect many bone tumors and tumor-like conditions and appears particularly suitable as a diagnostic technique for rural regions of India as other developing countries.

Sanyal J.,Anthropological Survey of India | Chakraborty D.P.,Bankura Medical College and Hospital | Sarkar B.,Anthropological Survey of India | Banerjee T.K.,National Neuroscience Center | And 3 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences | Year: 2010

Background: While the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown, evidence suggests certain environmental factors, such as well water drinking, herbicides, pesticides exposure and neurotoxins, may trigger the chain of oxidative reactions culminating in the death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra to cause Parkinsonism. To investigate the possible impact of environmental risk factors for idiopathic PD, a case-control study was performed in the Eastern India. Methods: During the period from January 1st, 2006 and December 10th, 2009, 175 PD patients (140 men, 35 women) and 350 non-Parkinson age-sex matched controls were included in the study. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed an administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on demographic data, pesticides, herbicides family history, occupation, dietary and smoking habits. Results: The multivariate analysis revealed that family history of PD, pesticide exposure, exposure to toxins other than pesticides and herbicides, rural living and previous history of depression were associated with increased risk of PD, whereas, smoking appeared to be a protective factor. Well water drinking for at least five years, though a significant risk factor on univariate analysis (OR=4.5, 95% CI=2.1-9.9), could not be proved significant in multivariate analysis. Head trauma, vegetarian dietary habit, occupation involving physical exertion and exposure to domestic pets were not as significant risk factors. Conclusion: Results of our study support the hypothesis of multifactorial etiology of PD with environmental factors acting on a genetically susceptible host.

Banerjee R.,University of Calcutta | Ghosh A.K.,Jadavpur University | Ghosh B.,Calcutta Medical College and Hospital | Bhattacharyya S.,Bidhan Chandra Agricultural University | Mondal A.C.,University of Calcutta
Clinical Medicine Insights: Pathology | Year: 2013

Despite the devastating effect of suicide on numerous lives, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning its neurochemical aspects. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression through binding and activating their cognate receptors TrkB and TrkA respectively. The present study was performed to examine whether the expression profiles of BDNF and/or TrkB as well as NGF and/or TrkA were altered in the hippocampus of postmortem brain of the participants, who had committed suicide and whether these alterations were associated with specific psychopathologic conditions. These studies were performed on the hippocampus of 21 suicide victims and 19 non-psychiatric control individuals. The protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, TrkB, NGF, and TrkA were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot and reverse transcription-PCR. Given the importance of BDNF and NGF and their cognate receptors in mediating physiological functions, including cell survival and synaptic plasticity, our findings of reduced expression of BDNF, TrkB, NGF, and TrkA on both the protein and mRNA levels of postmortem brains of suicide victims suggest that these molecules may play an important role in the pathophysiological aspects of suicidal behavior. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

Ghosh S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Ghosh A.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Maiti G.P.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Mukherjee N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2010

Introduction: To understand the role of two interacting proteins LIMD1 and pRB in development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), alterations of these genes were analyzed in 25 dysplastic head and neck lesions, 58 primary HNSCC samples and two HNSCC cell lines.Methods: Deletions of LIMD1 and RB1 were analyzed along with mutation and promoter methylation analysis of LIMD1. The genotyping of LIMD1 linked microsatellite marker, hmlimD1, was done to find out any risk allele. The mRNA expression of LIMD1 and RB1 were analyzed by Q-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis of RB1 was performed. Alterations of these genes were correlated with different clinicopathological parameters.Results: High frequency [94% (78/83)] of LIMD1 alterations was observed in the samples studied. Compare to frequent deletion and methylation, mutation of LIMD1 was increased during tumor progression (P = 0.007). Six novel mutations in exon1 and one novel intron4/exon5 splice-junction mutation were detected in LIMD1 along with a susceptible hmlimD1 (CA)20allele. Some of these mutations [42% (14/33)] produced non-functional proteins. RB1 deletion was infrequent (27%). Highly reduced mRNA expression of LIMD1 (25.1 ± 19.04) was seen than RB1 (3.8 ± 8.09), concordant to their molecular alterations. The pRB expression supported this data. Tumors with LIMD1 alterations in tobacco addicted patients without HPV infection showed poor prognosis. Co-alterations of these genes led the worse patients' outcome.Conclusions: Our study suggests LIMD1 inactivation as primary event than inactivation of RB1 in HNSCC development. © 2010 Ghosh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mitra S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Indra D.M.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Bhattacharya N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer | Year: 2010

To understand the importance of frequent deletion of 3p22.3 in cervical carcinogenesis, alterations (deletion/methylation/expression) of the candidate genes STAC, MLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3, located in the region, were analyzed in 24 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 137 uterine cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples. In CIN, RBSP3 deletion (48%) and methylation (26%) were high compared with the other genes (4-9%). In CACX, alterations of these genes were as follows: deletion: STAC (54%) > MLH1 (46%) > RBSP3 (45%) > ITGA9 (41%), methylation: RBSP3 (25%) > ITGA9 (24%) > STAC (19%) > MLH1 (13%). Overall, alterations of RBSP3 showed association with CIN, whereas for STAC and MLH1, this frequency increased significantly from CIN → Stage I/II and for ITGA9 from CIN → Stage I/II and also from Stage I/II → Stage III/IV. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis showed differential reduced expression of these genes in CACX concordant to their molecular alterations. The more active RBSP3B splice variant was underexpressed in CACX. RB1 was infrequently deleted in CACX. Concordance was seen between (i) inactivation of RBSP3 and intense p-RB1 nuclear immunostaining and (ii) low/absence of MLH1 expression and its molecular alterations in CACX. In normal cervical epithelium, p-RB1 immunostaining was low in differentiated cells, whereas MLH1 staining was seen in both nucleus and cytoplasm irrespective of differentiation stage. Alterations of the genes were significantly associated with poor prognosis. High parity (≥5)/early sexual debut (≤19 years) coupled with RBSP3 alterations/RB1 deletion predicted worst prognosis. Thus, inactivation of RBSP3 might be one of the early events in cervical carcinogenesis. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Ghosh A.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Ghosh S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Maiti G.P.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Sabbir M.G.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Science | Year: 2010

To understand the association between candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) human mismatch repair protein homologue 1 (hMLH1), AP20 region gene 1 (APRG1), integrin α RLC (ITGA9), RB1 serine phosphates from human chromosome 3 (RBSP3) at chromosomal 3p22.3 region and development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), alterations (deletion/promoter methylation/expression) of these genes were analyzed in 65 dysplastic lesions and 84 HNSCC samples. Clinicopathological correlations were made with alterations of the genes. In HNSCC, deletion frequencies of hMLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3 were comparatively higher than APRG1. Overall alterations (deletion/methylation) of hMLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3 were high (45-55%) in mild dysplasia and comparable in subsequent stages of tumor progression. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed reduced expression of these genes in tumors concordant to their molecular alterations. An in vitro demethylation experiment by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine confirmed the promoter hypermethylation of RBSP3 in Hep2 and UPCI:SCC084 cell lines. Functionally less-active RBSP3A isoform was predominant in tumor tissues contrary to the adjacent normal tissue of tumors where more active RBSP3B isoform was prevalent. In immunohistochemical analysis, intense nuclear staining of hMLH1 and pRB (phosphorylated RB, the substrate of RBSP3) proteins were seen in the basal layer of normal epithelium. In tumors, concordance was seen between (i) low/intermediate level of hMLH1 expression and its molecular alterations; and (ii) intense nuclear staining of pRB and RBSP3 alterations. Poor patient outcome was seen with hMLH1 and RBSP3 alterations. Moreover, in absence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, tobacco-addicted patients with hMLH1, RBSP3 alterations, and nodal invasions showed poor prognosis. Thus our data suggests that dysregulation of hMLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3 associated multiple cellular pathways are needed for the development of early dysplastic lesions of the head and neck. (Cancer Sci 2010). © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

Chatterjee S.S.,Calcutta Medical College and Hospital | Mitra S.,Sarojini Naidu Medical College | Guha P.,NRS Medical College and Hospital | Chakraborty K.,Jnm Hospital
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice | Year: 2015

Background: Persistent somatoform pain disorder (SPD) is a condition in which the patient suffers from persistent, severe and distressing pain; and from associated physical and psychological distress. While presence of restless leg syndrome (RLS) in SPD is understudied, their association might have an impact on general well-being and quality of life (QoL) in SPD. Aims and Objectives: Present study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of RLS in SPD patients attending outpatient department services at a tertiary care institute in eastern India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty consecutive patients with SPD were screened initially and after applying appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, 192 subjects (male = 85, female = 107) were included in the study. Severity of RLS was assessed using a questionnaire of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group and QoL was measured on QoL Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). Results: Revealed a 28% prevalence of RLS is in patients with SPD, which is much higher than its estimated population prevalence. A larger proportion of those with RLS had continuous course of SPD, longer duration of SPD, and higher daytime sleepiness. They also had poorer scores on Q-LES-Q-SF, indicating a poorer QoL overall. Discussion and Conclusion: This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, on this aspect from India. While this association between RLS and SPD may have biological explanation based on abnormal monoaminergic neurotransmission system, the findings call for more vigilant approach to SPD patients in order to improve their QoL and add to their well-being.

Ghosh R.,Sinha Institute of Medical Science and Technology | Karmohapatra S.K.,Sinha Institute of Medical Science and Technology | Bhattacharyya M.,Sinha Institute of Medical Science and Technology | Bhattacharya R.,Calcutta Medical College and Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis | Year: 2011

Hyperglycemia with severe reduction of plasma insulin level is frequently associated with acute ischemic heart disease. Since insulin is reported to be an anti thrombotic humoral factor, the mechanism of the impaired insulin synthesis was investigated. The plasma from the patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Dermcidin isoform 2 (dermcidin) was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin synthesis was determined by in vitro translation of glucose induced insulin mRNA synthesis in the pancreatic β cells. Nitric oxide (NO) was determined by methemoglobin method. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of AMI plasma demonstrated the presence of a novel protein band of Mr 11 kDa that was determined to be dermcidin. Addition of 0.1 μM dermcidin inhibited insulin synthesis by >65 fold compared to control through the inhibition of NO synthesis in the pancreatic cells. The oral administration of 150 mg acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) to the AMI patients increased the plasma insulin level from 13 (median) to 143 μunits/dl (median) with concomitant decrease of plasma dermcidin level from 112 to 9 nM in these patients within 12 h. It was also found that while the injection of 3.0 ± 0.05 (n = 10) nmol dermcidin with 0.25 ± 0.03 μmol ADP/g body weight caused coronary thrombus in mice, ADP itself at this concentration failed to produce thrombus. These results indicated that dermcidin was a novel platelet aggregating agent, and potentiated the ADP induced thrombosis in the animal model as well as acutely inhibited glucose induced insulin synthesis. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

PubMed | Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, Jadavpur University, Calcutta Medical College and Hospital and Indian Statistical Institute
Type: | Journal: Journal of psycholinguistic research | Year: 2016

Pragmatic competence may be disrupted due to psychological and neurological causes. For appropriate remedy and rehabilitation, a precise assessment of pragmatic skills is important. However, there is no test battery in the Bengali language, and consequently, there is no published data on pragmatic ability of Bengali speakers. Due to the vast diversity of the population, it becomes increasingly difficult to assess pragmatic ability of an individual without a proper knowledge of the normal variations. To address this problem we have developed a test battery in Bengali, and to begin with, we have administered it to one hundred and five (105) normal healthy persons having different levels of education. The four groups having 17years and above, 15 to < 17years, 12 to < 15years and 10 to < 12years of education yielded a normative score of 193, 189, 171 and 150, respectively. These normative scores will allow clinicians to make a proper assessment of patients suffering from pragmatic deficits and help avoid interpreting social differences as neurological deficits.

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