Calabazas Creek Research Inc.

Palo Alto, CA, United States

Calabazas Creek Research Inc.

Palo Alto, CA, United States
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Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

There is a continuing need for high power circulators to protect the next generation of high power RF sources from waveguide reflections that can destroy the device. Currently, the power level of circulators is limited by the materials, specifically ferrites that provide the required non-reciprocal operation. New approaches are required that use materials capable of very high power operation. Statement of how this problem or situation is being addressed Calabazas Creek Research Inc. and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory propose to explore a new approach that avoids ferrites and other materials unable to support high power operation. The new approach uses coupled cavities and RF modulation to provide the required performance. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits High power circulators are required whenever high power RF sources are driving loads where reflected power may occur. This includes RF sources for high energy accelerators and colliders. Circulators are also used in some high power radar applications and are a key component of a magnetron-based power source being developed for accelerators. Key Words. Circulator, ferrites, piezoelectric, RF source, accelerator Summary for Members of Congress The proposed program will develop a device to protect high power RF sources from destructive reflections in accelerator and collider applications. This will allow an increase of source power, reducing cost for these systems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

The Brayton cycle for power generation offers significant advantages over the Rankin cycle typically used. Unfortunately, the Brayton cycle uses very high pressure and high temperature, supercritical CO2 (sCO2) as the heat transfer fluid. New materials that can handle the harsh environment of sCO2 are required to enable power generation and prevent issues with corrosion and erosion or efficiency degradation. Calabazas Creek Research Inc. (CCR), in collaboration with North Carolina State University (NCSU) and the University of Wisconsin – Madison (UoW) propose to develop nanometer scale, ceramic coatings to provide a barrier between sCO2 and the surface of underlying metal components. This will allow lower cost materials that provide the required performance, significantly reducing cost and improving process economics. This program will develop protective ceramic coatings for materials used in next generation high pressure, high temperature power generators. The power generators offer significant advances in efficiency but lack long term protection from effects of corrosion. The technology developed in this program will reduce maintenance cost of power generators and provide economic and environmental benefits over power generators presently operating in the U.S. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The cost for power plant components is well into the $Billion annually. This process would be applicable to heat exchangers, turbines, valves, sensors, and piping. The technology could be used on a wide variety of power plant systems, including those for fossil fuels, nuclear power, and waste heat recovery.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2015

This program will investigate development of a multiple beam electron gun and permanent magnet transport system for a millimeter-wave traveling wave tube for electronic warfare, high-data-rate communications, and high resolution radar. A program goal will be to minimize weight to achieve a high power to weight ratio. The program will use controlled porosity reservoir (CPR) cathodes and innovative magnetic circuit techniques to achieve the program goals. CPR cathodes can provide high current density electron emission with high quality and long life. High current density emission eliminates requirements for high beam compression, allowing concentration of multiple emitters for interaction with the RF circuit. PPM focusing offers the minimum weight for high power RF sources, and the program will focus on investigation of innovative periodic permanent magnet (PPM) configurations previously demonstrated to provide the required field shape for multiple beam propagation. If no appropriate PPM structure is found, CCR will investigate permanent magnets producing uni-directional fields. The Phase I program will include 3D simulations of potential electron gun and magnetic circuit configurations. Test structures will be built and tested in the Phase I Option. A complete electron gun and magnetic transport system would be built and tested in the Phase II program.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

The ITER research reactor will require twenty four high power RF loads for gyrotrons, with the requirement eventually increasing to forty eight. The U.S. is responsible for providing these loads; however, none are available that meet the required specifications. Calabazas Creek Research Inc. proposes to develop 1.5 MW CW, RF loads meeting the ITER specifications. The development will build on technology successfully implemented in 1 MW loads that have been in operation for more than fifteen years. The new specifications will require an innovative configuration that dynamically distributes the RF power over RF absorbing surfaces without arcing or excessive power densities. The Phase I program will investigate techniques to dynamically distribute RF power inside a lossy, cylindrical structure to absorb 1.5 MW CW or RF power without arcing or thermal damage. Advanced simulation tools will be used to simulate the RF and thermomechanical performance. Assembly and bonding techniques, compatible with ITER requirements, will be developed. A control and diagnostic system will be developed. The estimated revenue for the first twenty four loads for ITER is more than $6M. This would more than double for the second phase. In addition, the loads would be applicable for other fusion research facilities in Japan, Europe, China, and the United States.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

High efficiency, low cost RF sources are required for proton, ion, and muon accelerators. These sources must be compact and provide precise control of the output power and phase. Currently only large, expensive klystrons can provide this performance. Calabazas Creek Research Inc. proposes to develop a phase locked magnetron-based system that has phase and amplitude control via a low power amplifier. The system uses phase modulation to control the RF power. The efficiency can exceed 80% and the cost is expected to be less than $3/Watt, significantly lower than other high power amplifiers. CCR originally proposed to develop a magnetron with a grid for control of phase and amplitude. Detailed simulations showed that this was not a promising approach. The grid was found to be viable only in magnetrons with low duty cycle, and amplitude control was demonstrated; but the grid was found to be not effective for phase locking. Attention was turned to a concept from FermiLab, which is very promising for both amplitude and phase control and does not require a grid. CCR will develop an RF system providing phase and amplitude control of a 100 kW peak, 10 kW average 1.3 GHz magnetron. Procedures and techniques will be applicable to design of systems at other frequencies and power levels. The program will include development of the magnetron and locking electronics. The system will be tested at FermiLab. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits Magnetrons can provide high levels of RF power at very high efficiency at low cost. As oscillators, however, their applications are limited. Magnetrons with more precise control of the output power and control of the phase could find wide application in accelerators and colliders. They would also provide improved performance for high resolution radar.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

There are currently no comprehensive computational design tools for developing photocathodes and the electron sources they support. Existing codes do not address the latest photocathode materials, nor do they provide the complete physics related to electron emission. This is complicating design of RF guns and photoinjectors for accelerators and light sources. Statement of how this problem or situation is being addressed Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. proposes to develop an intuitive, user-friendly design tool for analyzing photocathode performance in photoinjectors. The new code will provide access to the required characteristics of the most common materials and include improved physical models to predict performance. The code will be designed for standard personal computers and include an intuitive, user-friendly, graphical interface with extensive post processing features. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits The code will be useful for photoinjector designers for a broad range of accelerator and light source applications. Potential users include national laboratories, academic and industrial research organizations, and designers and builders of photoinjectors, accelerators, and light sources.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 981.73K | Year: 2013

Project X at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory listed a requirement for 75 - 125 500 kW L-Band solenoid focused klystrons for the main LINAC. CCR proposed a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focused klystron. Funding was cut substantially for the LINAC, and CCR received a change of scope to address a near term application for an S-Band klystron for the Varian Medical Systems future CLINAC. CCR will continue to address long term DOE requirements. CCR is proposing a 5 MW PPM-focused klystron for commercial applications while still addressing long term technology requirements for DOE. All of the Phase I goals were met for both klystrons. A design was produced for the 500 kW L-Band, including detailed simulation of the diode type electron gun, interaction circuit consisting of 7 individual cavities, and an RF output window. In addition, a design was produced for the 5 MW S-Band PPM focused klystron with an efficiency of 49%. This is higher than that produced by the CLINAC solenoid klystron. Individual designs were realized for all of the critical components. In Phase II we will complete the design of the 5 MW PPM klystron, optimizing critical parameters such as electron gun, electron beam focusing, PPM structure, interaction circuit, collector, and RF output window. A detailed thermal analysis will be performed on the electron gun, circuit, and window. CCR will then perform a detailed mechanical design, fabricate, bake out, and high power test. Testing will be conducted at CPI, CCRs industrial partner. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: A detailed commercial plan has been submitted with this Phase II proposal. The VARIAN MEDICAL CLINAC application constitutes a large commercial possibility. Establishment of the PPM technology will result in installing klystrons in many systems in lieu of solenoid focused klystrons, increasing overall efficiency while reducing size and weight.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2016

The Phase I program investigated two applications for innovative coatings to address existing issues with RF source components in Navy systems. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) and N.C. State University (NCSU) performed analysis and experiments to determine if the proposed approaches would provide the require functionality.CCR investigated potential coatings to address arcing issues with RF sources subjected to stand-by operation. CCR identified a mechanism whereby the impact of barium oxide contamination could be mitigated by reducing or eliminating the availability of oxygen using a sputtered coating. Two potential coatings were applied to focus electrodes for the SPS-49 klystron. The effectiveness of the coating will be confirmed during the Phase I Option and the Phase II program.The program demonstrated that a coating could be applied to the internal surfaces of an RF source assembly to dramatically reduce corrosion. Analysis showed the coating was successfully applied to the internal device structures, confirming the effectiveness in achieving uniform and conformal coatings in complex structures.The Phase II program will complete the development of these two technologies, including integration into products used in Navy systems. Prototype products will be tested to confirm program goals are achieved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2014

Existing high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes experience very short lifetimes, often only a few hours. Because of the fabrication expense for these cathodes, commercial use is impractical for most applications. Photocathodes with long lifetime are needed to make photoguns cost effective for commercial applications. CCR and the University of Maryland are applying controlled porosity reservoir cathode technology to increase lifetime and provide recovery of contaminated photocathodes. The goal is to extend the lifetime of high QE photocathodes by more than two orders of magnitude. The Phase I program demonstrated that reservoir technology is applicable to photocathodes. Cesiated tungsten cathode lifetime was extended from approximately 100 hours to more than 30,000 hours. The technique was tested and verified for photocathode materials with QE exceeding 1%. The Phase II program will develop fabrication techniques for photocathodes with high QE at production volumes. Because these cathodes cannot be exposed to air, it will be necessary to develop techniques and tooling to handle, transport, and install cathodes at user facilities. The program will include extensive testing to confirm that remotely fabricated photocathodes can be successfully transported, installed, and operated. High power testing will be performed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: This technology would be applicable to high performance accelerators and colliders, as well as light sources for advanced research. Implementation in electron microscopes would provide ultrafast electron microscopy with time resolution on the femto-second time scales.


A cylindrical waveguide with a mode converter transforms a whispering gallery mode from a gyrotron cylindrical waveguide with a helical cut launch edge to a quasi-Gaussian beam suitable for conveyance through a corrugated waveguide. This quasi-Gaussian beam is radiated away from the waveguide using a spiral cut launch edge, which is in close proximity to a first mode converting reflector. The first mode converting reflector is coupled to a second mode converting reflector which provides an output free-space HE11 mode wave suitable for direct coupling into a corrugated waveguide. The radiated beam produced at the output of the second mode converting reflector is substantially circular.

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