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Lolo F.-N.,Spanish National Cancer Center | Lolo F.-N.,Spanish National Cardiovascular Center | Tinto S.C.,Spanish National Cancer Center | Tinto S.C.,Cajal Institute CSIC | And 2 more authors.
BioEssays | Year: 2013

Recent results show that, during the process known as cell competition, winner cells identify and kill viable cells from a growing population without requiring engulfment. The engulfment machinery is mainly required in circulating macrophages (hemocytes) after the discrimination between winners and losers is completed and the losers have been killed and extruded from the epithelium. Those new results leave us with the question as to which molecules allow winner cells to recognize and impose cell death on the loser cells during cell competition. During cell competition, winner cells induce apoptosis in loser cells by unknown mechanisms. Apoptotic debris is extruded basally from the epithelium to be cleared by hemocytes. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc. Source


Rubio G.,Hospital 12 de Octubre | Borrell J.,Cajal Institute CSIC | Jimenez M.,Hospital 12 de Octubre | Jurado R.,Hospital 12 de Octubre | And 2 more authors.
Addiction Biology | Year: 2013

Cue modulation of the startle reflex is a paradigm that has been used to understand the emotional mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence. Attenuation of the startle reflex has been demonstrated when alcohol-dependent subjects are exposed to alcohol-related stimuli. However, the role of clinical variables on the magnitude of this response is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a number of clinical variables severity of alcoholism, family history of alcoholism (FHA+), personality traits related to the sensitivity to reward and the startle reflex response when subjects with alcohol dependence were viewing alcohol-related cues. After detoxification, 98 participants completed self-report instruments and had eye blink electromyograms measured to acoustic startle probes [100-millisecond burst of white noise at 95 dB(A)] while viewing alcohol-related pictures, and standardised appetitive, aversive and neutral control scenes. Ninety-eight healthy controls were also assessed with the same instruments. There were significant differences on alcohol-startle magnitude between patients and controls. Comparisons by gender showed that women perceived alcohol cues and appetitive cues more appetitive than men. Male and female patients showed more appetitive responses to alcohol cues when compared with their respective controls. Our patients showed an appetitive effect of alcohol cues that was positively related to severity of alcohol dependence, sensitivity to reward and a FHA+. The data confirmed that the pattern of the modulation of the acoustic startle reflex reveals appetitive effects of the alcohol cues and extended it to a variety of clinical variables. © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source


Dreier J.P.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Isele T.,TU Berlin | Reiffurth C.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Offenhauser N.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 3 more authors.
Neuroscientist | Year: 2013

In the evolution of the cerebral cortex, the sophisticated organization in a steady state far away from thermodynamic equilibrium has produced the side effect of two fundamental pathological network events: ictal epileptic activity and spreading depolarization. Ictal epileptic activity describes the partial disruption, and spreading depolarization describes the near-complete disruption of the physiological double Gibbs-Donnan steady state. The occurrence of ictal epileptic activity in patients has been known for decades. Recently, unequivocal electrophysiological evidence has been found in patients that spreading depolarizations occur abundantly in stroke and brain trauma. The authors propose that the ion changes can be taken to estimate relative changes in Gibbs free energy from state to state. The calculations suggest that in transitions from the physiological state to ictal epileptic activity to spreading depolarization to death, the cortex releases Gibbs free energy in a stepwise fashion. Spreading depolarization thus appears as a twilight state close to death. Consistently, electrocorticographic recordings in the core of focal ischemia or after cardiac arrest display a smooth transition from the initial spreading depolarization component to the later ultraslow negative potential, which is assumed to reflect processes in cellular death. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Perez-Domper P.,Cajal Institute CSIC | Perez-Domper P.,CIBER ISCIII | Gradari S.,Cajal Institute CSIC | Trejo J.L.,Cajal Institute CSIC
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2013

The decision between cellular survival and death is governed by a balance between proapoptotic versus antiapoptotic signaling cascades. Growth factors are key actors, playing two main roles both at developmental and adult stages: a supporting antiapoptotic role through diverse actions converging in the mitochondria, and a promoter role of cell maturation and plasticity through dendritogenesis and synaptogenesis, especially relevant for the adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a case of development during adulthood. Here, both parallel roles mutually feed forward each other (the success in avoiding apoptosis lets the cell to grow and differentiate, which in turn lets the cell to reach new targets and form new synapses accessing new sources of growth factors to support cell survival) in a circular cause and consequence, or a "the chicken or the egg" dilemma. While identifying the first case of this dilemma makes no sense, one possible outcome might have biological relevance: the decision between survival and death in the adult hippocampal neurogenesis is mainly concentrated at a specific time window, and recent data suggest some divergences between the survival and the maturational promoter effect of growth factors. This review summarizes these evidences suggesting how growth factors might contribute to the live-or-die decision of adult-born immature granule neurons through influencing the maturation of the young neuron by means of its connectivity into a mature functional circuit. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Martin-Lopez E.,Cajal Institute CSIC | Alonso F.R.,CSIC - Institute of Ceramics and Glass | Nieto-Diaz M.,Experimental Neurology Unit | Nieto-Sampedro M.,Cajal Institute CSIC | Nieto-Sampedro M.,Experimental Neurology Unit
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition | Year: 2012

Biomaterial implants are a promising strategy to replace neural tissue that is lost after traumatic nerve damage. Chitosan (Ch) is a suitable material for nerve implantation when it is used at a minimum amount of 2% (w/v). The goal of this study was to determine the best mixture of 2% Ch with gelatin (G) and poly(L-lysine) (PLL) for use in neural tissue engineering. Using different physicochemical approaches we showed that all mixtures formed polyelectrolyte complexes with distinct electrostatic interactions between their compounds. This gave rise to different gel morphologies, among which Ch + G exhibited a significantly smaller pore size, unlike Ch + G + PLL. However, thermal resistance to degradation and the wettability of the Ch-based films were not affected. Additionally, these differences affected glial cells growth in long-term (14 days) cultures performed on Ch-based films. Astrocytes and olfactory ensheathing cells proliferated on G and Ch + G films which induced both flattened and spindle cell morphologies. Meanwhile, cortical and hippocampal neurons were similarly viable in all studied films and significantly lower than those observed in controls. Lastly, neurites from dorsal root ganglia extended the most on Ch + G films. These results show that a Ch + G mixture is a promising candidate for use in neural tissue engineering. © 2012 VSP. Source

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