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Cairns, Australia

Ritchie A.G.,Concord Repatriation General Hospital | Saunders J.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Baer R.,Cairns Hospital | May S.,Tamworth Hospital
Seminars in Dialysis | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to describe the range and extent of current procedural practices of Nephrologists and trainees in Australia and New Zealand with a specific focus on renal biopsy. A web-based survey was constructed based on a 2009 pilot survey conducted by the authors. The survey was distributed by email. A total of 118 responses were received from 60 centers, including six pediatric centers; Nephrologists or trainees performed the following procedures: urine microscopy 36.4%; diagnostic ultrasound 10.2%; renal biopsy 93.2%; simple vascath insertion 64.4%; cuffed vascath insertion 22%; peritoneal catheter insertion 16.9%; fistula ultrasound 20.3%; and fistulography 5%. Trainees performed most renal biopsies (67.8% of respondents) and real-time ultrasound was the commonest technique (97%). The majority of respondents believe that renal biopsy is an essential skill for trainees (78.8%); 10-25 biopsies are required for trainee proficiency (59.3%); an online training module would assist in teaching renal biopsies (67.8%). Cuffed catheter insertion and fistulography were more often performed in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan centers. Procedures are part of Australian and New Zealand Nephrology, including specialized procedures in a minority of centers. Vascular access procedures are more common in nonmetropolitan centers. Renal biopsy is an important skill, considered essential for trainees by most. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Parkinson B.,Cairns Hospital | Gogna R.,Coventry University | Robb C.,Coventry University | Thompson P.,Coventry University | Spalding T.,Coventry University
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2015

Purpose: The aim of this study was to define the normal ACL central tibial footprint position and describe a standardised technique of measuring tibial tunnel location on 3D CT for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Methods: The central position of the ACL tibial attachment site was determined on 76 MRI scans of young individuals. The central footprint position was referenced in the anterior–posterior (A–P) and medial–lateral (M–L) planes on a grid system over the widest portion of the proximal tibia. 3D CT images of 26 young individuals had a simulated tibial tunnel centred within the bony landmarks of the ACL footprint, and the same grid system was applied over the widest portion of the proximal tibia. The MRI central footprint position was compared to the 3D CT central footprint position to validate the technique and results. Results: The median age of the 76 MRI subjects was 24 years, with 32 females and 44 males. The ACL central footprint position was at 39 (±3 %) and 48 (±2 %), in the A–P and M–L planes, respectively. There was no significant difference in this position between sexes. The median age of the 26 CT subjects was 25.5 years, with 10 females and 16 males. The central position of the bony ACL footprint was at 38 (±2 %) and 48 (±2 %), in the A–P and M–L planes, respectively. The MRI and CT central footprint positions were not significantly different in relation to the medial position, but were different in relation to the anterior position (A–P 39 % vs. 38 %, p = 0.01). The absolute difference between the central MRI and CT reference positions was 0.45 mm. Conclusions: The ACL’s normal central tibial footprint reference position has been defined, and the technique of measuring tibial tunnel location with a standardised grid system is described. This study will assist surgeons in evaluating tibial tunnel position in anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Level of evidence: III. © 2015 European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery, Arthroscopy (ESSKA)

Ismail I.,Gold Coast University Hospital | Neuen B.L.,St. Vincents Hospital | Mantha M.,Cairns Hospital
BMJ Case Reports | Year: 2015

Metachronous metastatic disease may develop in up to 50% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who have undergone a presumably curative radical nephrectomy. We describe a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to a solitary jejunal RCC metastasis affecting a 66-year-old man with a history of RCC, which was treated 19 years earlier by right radical nephrectomy. The patient underwent successful laparotomy and wide margin resection of the affected small bowel with end-to-end anastomosis. A subsequent staging CT revealed no other metastases. To our knowledge, only eight cases of isolated small bowel metastasis from RCC have been reported. Of these, only one previous report referred to a longer time interval to small bowel metastasis than our case. The case highlights that isolated bowel metastasis should be considered as a possible aetiology of small bowel obstruction, even in patients with a distant history of presumably curative cancer treatment. Copyright 2015 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Killen J.P.,Cairns Hospital | Brenninger V.L.,Royal North Shore Hospital
Nephrology | Year: 2014

Background Long-term haemodialysis patients may be at risk of hydrosoluble vitamin deficiencies. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that in patients with serum B12 < 300 pmol/L, intramuscular hydroxocobalamin reduces erythropoietin requirements whilst maintaining haemoglobin concentrations (Hb). Methods Study design was prospective, non-randomized, open label, with single group assignment. In 61 patients hydroxocobalamin 1000 μg was given weekly for 3 weeks and erythropoietin dose adjusted to target a Hb of 11-12 g/L. The primary outcome was the change in erythropoietin requirements at 2 years. Secondary outcomes included assessment of change in biochemical or clinical parameters. Results The erythropoietin dose reduced from 11 000 ± 7000 (10 000) IU to 5000 ± 6000 (3000) IU per week (P < 0.001) with no change in Hb 116 ± 16 (117) g/L before and after 114 ± 15 (113) g/L (P = 0.488) hydroxocobalamin supplementation. Serum albumin rose from 35 ± 4 (35) g/L to 36 ± 4 (36) g/L (P = 0.03). A significant rise in red cell folate (RCF) and serum vitamin B12 levels was observed. Serum ferritin rose despite a reduction in intravenous iron usage and no significant change in c-reactive protein or transferrin saturation. Conclusions In HD patients with B12 < 300 pmol/L, following treatment with hydroxocobalamin there was reduced erythropoietin requirements, maintained Hb and a small but significant rise in the serum albumin. RCF may be low in haemodialysis patients with metabolic cobalamin deficiency and rises significantly after supplementation. Hydroxocobalamin supplementation may have the potential to reduce the cost of anaemia management. Summary at a Glance The contribution of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency towards the anaemia of dialysis patients is an under recognized problem. This study examines the effect of administration of hydroxycobalamin over 2 years to those on haemodialysis with B12 < 300 pmol/L, and reported a reduction in erythropoietin-stimulating agent requirements. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

Cooksley N.A.J.B.,Cairns Hospital | Atkinson D.,University of Western Australia | Marks G.B.,Woolcock Institute of Medical Research | Toelle B.G.,Woolcock Institute of Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Respirology | Year: 2015

Background and objective Mortality and hospital separation data suggest a higher burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in indigenous than non-indigenous subpopulations of high-income countries. This study sought to accurately measure the true prevalence of post-bronchodilator airflow obstruction and forced vital capacity reduction in representative samples of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Methods This study applies cross-sectional population-based survey of Aboriginal and non-Indigenous residents of the Kimberley region of Western Australia aged 40 years or older, following the international Burden Of Lung Disease (BOLD) protocol. Quality-controlled spirometry was conducted before and after bronchodilator. COPD was defined as Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Stage 2 and above (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio <0.7 and FEV1-<-80% predicted). Results Complete data were available for 704 participants. The prevalence of COPD, adjusted for age, gender and body weight in Aboriginal participants (7.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9 to 10.4) was similar to that seen in non-Indigenous Kimberley participants (8.2%, 95% CI 5.7 to 10.7) and non-Indigenous residents of the remainder of Australia (7.1%, 95% CI 6.1 to 8.0). The prevalence of low FVC (<80% predicted) was substantially higher in Aboriginal compared with non-Indigenous participants (74.0%, 95% CI 69.1 to 78.8, vs 9.7%, 95% CI 7.1 to 12.4). Conclusions Low FVC, rather than airflow obstruction, characterizes the impact of chronic lung disease previously attributed to COPD in this population subject to significant social and economic disadvantage. Environmental risk factors other than smoking as well as developmental factors must be considered. These findings require further investigation and have implications for future prevention of chronic lung disease in similar populations. In Aboriginal Australians and similar populations subject to significant social and environmental disadvantage, differences in FVC may be so great that they translate to a clinically relevant reduction in baseline respiratory reserve. Low FVC may therefore characterize the impact of chronic lung disease previously attributed to COPD in Aboriginal Australians. See Editorial, page 693 © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

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