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San Sebastián de los Reyes, Spain

Almoguera B.,CAIBER Unit | Almoguera B.,CIBER ISCIII | Riveiro-Alvarez R.,CAIBER Unit | Riveiro-Alvarez R.,CIBER ISCIII | And 14 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: Three IL-10 gene promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms -1082G > A, -819C > T and -592C > A and the haplotypes they define in Caucasians, GCC, ACC, ATA, associated with different IL-10 production rates, have been linked to schizophrenia in some populations with conflicting results. On the basis of the evidence of the sex-dependent effect of certain genes in many complex diseases, we conducted a sex-stratified case-control association study to verify the linkage of the IL-10 gene promoter SNPs and haplotypes with schizophrenia and the possible sex-specific genetic effect in a Spanish schizophrenic population.Methods: 241 DSM-IV diagnosed Spanish schizophrenic patients and 435 ethnically matched controls were genotyped for -1082G > A and -592C > A SNPs. Chi squared tests were performed to assess for genetic association of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes with the disease.Results: The -1082A allele (p = 0.027), A/A (p = 0.008) and ATA/ATA (p = 0.003) genotypes were significantly associated with schizophrenia in females while neither allelic nor genotypic frequencies reached statistical significance in the male population.Conclusions: Our results highlight the hypothesis of an imbalance towards an inflammatory syndrome as the immune abnormality of schizophrenia. Anyway, a better understanding of the involvement of the immune system would imply the search of immune abnormalities in endophenotypes in whose sex and ethnicity might be differential factors. It also reinforces the need of performing complex gene studies based on multiple cytokine SNPs, including anti and pro-inflammatory, to clarify the immune system abnormalities direction in the etiology of schizophrenia. © 2011 Almoguera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Almoguera B.,CAIBER Unit | Almoguera B.,CIBER ISCIII | Riveiro-Alvarez R.,CAIBER Unit | Riveiro-Alvarez R.,CIBER ISCIII | And 17 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2010

Aims: How genes affect the response in a patient to a given medication is still poorly understood; the validation of biomarkers and technologies need to be performed. This study aims to determine the analytical characteristics of PHARMAChip®, a newly developed pharmacogenetic array, and the Spanish population allelic and genotypic frequencies of the genetic variants included in this chip. Materials & methods: The analytical characteristics of PHARMAChip assessed were sensitivity and specificity (for CYP2D6 and SLC6A4), accuracy (for SLC6A4) and genotyping rate: frequencies of the 90 pharmacogenetic variants of 36 genes were included in PHARMAChip. These were compared in 449 Spanish subjects with data reported in Caucasians. Results & conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 96-100%, accuracy was 94.8% and genotyping success rate was 99.6%. PHARMAChip is an accurate, rapid and updatable tool, which may be especially useful for cytochrome P450 testing. The allelic and genotypic frequencies found in the Spanish subjects reinforce the need for establishing possible intraethnic differences among populations prior to performing this kind of study. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Almoguera B.,CAIBER Unit | Almoguera B.,CIBER ISCIII | Riveiro-Alvarez R.,CAIBER Unit | Riveiro-Alvarez R.,CIBER ISCIII | And 19 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2013

Risperidone non-compliance is often high due to undesirable side effects, whose development is in part genetically determined. Studies with genetic variants involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of risperidone have yielded inconsistent results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative association of genetic markers with the occurrence of four frequently observed adverse events secondary to risperidone treatment: sleepiness, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms and sexual adverse events. A series of 111 schizophrenia inpatients were genotyped for genetic variants previously associated with or potentially involved in risperidone response. Presence of adverse events was the main variable and potential confounding factors were considered. Allele 16Gly of ADRB2 was significantly associated with a higher risk of sexual adverse events. There were other non-significant trends for DRD3 9Gly and SLC6A4 S alleles. Our results, although preliminary, provide new candidate variants of potential use in risperidone safety prediction. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

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