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Tarsus, Turkey

The Çağ University is a private, non-profit university in Mersin Province, Turkey. It was established officially on 9 July 1997 by Bayboğan Education Foundation in Adana. "Çağ" means "epoch".Situated on the state highway D.400 near Yenice, it is 22 km west of Adana, 18 km east of Tarsus and 45 km east of Mersin. The majority of students are from Adana.Presently, there are two more universities in the Province of Mersin, Mersin University is a public university and Toros University is another private university. Wikipedia.


Acaravci A.,Mustafa Kemal University | Ozturk I.,Cag University
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the long-run relationship and causality issues between electricity consumption and economic growth in 15 Transition countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Ukraine) by using the Pedroni panel cointegration method for the 1990-2006 period. Results suggest that the Pedroni panel cointegration tests do not confirm a long-term equilibrium relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real GDP per capita. Moreover, since no cointegration was found, error-correction mechanisms plus causality tests cannot be run for further steps in the long-term to investigate the causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. Overall, it can be said that the electricity consumption related policies have no effect or relation on the level of real output in the long run for these countries. As a conclusion, the literature has conflicting results and there is no consensus either on the existence or the direction of causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. Thus, the findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source


Ozturk I.,Cag University | Acaravci A.,Mustafa Kemal University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

This paper examines the long run and causal relationship issues between economic growth, carbon emissions, energy consumption and employment ratio in Turkey by using autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach of cointegration. Empirical results for Turkey over the period 1968-2005 suggest an evidence of a long-run relationship between the variables at 5% significance level in Turkey. The estimated income elasticity of carbon emissions per capita is -0.606 and the income elasticity of energy consumption per capita is 1.375. Results for the existence and direction of Granger causality show that neither carbon emissions per capita nor energy consumption per capita cause real GDP per capita, but employment ratio causes real GDP per capita in the short run. In addition, EKC hypothesis at causal framework by using a linear logarithmic model is not valid in Turkish case. The overall results indicates that energy conservation policies, such as rationing energy consumption and controlling carbon dioxide emissions, are likely to have no adverse effect on the real output growth of Turkey. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Ozturk I.,Cag University | Bilgili F.,Erciyes University
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the long run dynamics of economic growth and biomass consumption nexus by applying dynamic panel analyses for 51 Sub-Sahara African countries for 1980-2009 period. The results show that economic growth is affected by biomass consumption, openness and population significantly and positively in African countries. GDP elasticity with respect to biomass consumption is close to unity and the elasticities of GDP in terms of openness are found statistically significant (between 0.259 and 0.348). According to homogeneous variance structure, one percent increase in variables of biomass, openness and population will lead GDP to increase by 1.818%, 0.269% and 0.676%, respectively. However, according to estimations from heterogeneous variance structure indicate that one percent increase in biomass, openness and population variables will cause GDP to increase by 0.820%, 0.259% and 0.811%, respectively. In conclusion, this paper finds significant effect of biomass consumption on GDP in 51 Africa countries. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


The purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between energy and economic growth in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 1980 to 2006 by employing energy use per capita, electric power consumption per capita and real GDP per capita variables. To examine this linkage, we use the two-step procedure from the Engle and Granger model: In first step, we explore the long-run relationships between the variables by using recently developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Secondly, we employ a dynamic vector error correction (VEC) model to test causal relationships between variables. The bounds test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between energy use per capita and real GDP per capita and evidence of two-way (bidirectional) strong Granger causality between these variables only in Hungary. On the other hand, the ARDL bounds test results show that there is no a unique long-term or equilibrium relationship between energy consumption variables and real GDP per capita in Albania, Bulgaria and Romania. In other words, no cointegration exists between these variables in these three countries. The econometric analysis suggests that any causal relationships within dynamic error correction model for Albania, Bulgaria and Romania cannot be estimated. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Acaravci A.,Mustafa Kemal University | Ozturk I.,Cag University
Energy | Year: 2010

This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth by using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration for nineteen European countries. The bounds F-test for cointegration test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between carbon emissions per capita, energy consumption per capita, real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the square of per capita real GDP only for Denmark, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Portugal and Switzerland. The cumulative sum and cumulative sum of squares tests also show that the estimated parameters are stable for the sample period.We found a positive long-run elasticity estimate of emissions with respect to energy consumption at 1% significant level in Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy and Portugal. Positive long-run elasticity estimates of carbon emissions with respect to real GDP and the negative long-run elasticity estimates of carbon emissions with respect to the square of per capita real GDP at 1% significance level in Denmark and 5% significant level in Italy are also found. These results support that the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Denmark and Italy. This study also explores causal relationship between the variables by using error-correction based Granger causality models. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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