Tarsus, Turkey
Tarsus, Turkey

The Çağ University is a private, non-profit university in Mersin Province, Turkey. It was established officially on 9 July 1997 by Bayboğan Education Foundation in Adana. "Çağ" means "epoch".Situated on the state highway D.400 near Yenice, it is 22 km west of Adana, 18 km east of Tarsus and 45 km east of Mersin. The majority of students are from Adana.Presently, there are two more universities in the Province of Mersin, Mersin University is a public university and Toros University is another private university. Wikipedia.

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The main goal of this study is to examine the events that caused the environmental degradation in the MENA (Middle East and North African) region. To achieve the goal of this study, a panel model that represents the environmental degradation utilizing ecological footprint as a better indicator is constructed taken the period 1996-2012 investigating 14 MENA countries. The results from the Pedroni cointegration test revealed that ecological footprint, energy consumption, urbanization, trade openness, industrial development and political stability are cointegrated. Moreover, the results of FMOLS (fully modified ordinary least square) concluded that energy consumption, urbanization, trade openness and industrial development increases environmental damage while the political stability lessens it in the long run. In addition, the Granger causality revealed that the used variables have short run and long run causal relationship with the ecological footprint. Moreover, different directions of causal relationship were found between the variables. According to the outcomes of this study, a number of policy recommendations were provided for the MENA countries that can help them to reduce their environmental degradation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Arisoy I.,Cukurova University | Ozturk I.,Cag University
Energy | Year: 2014

This paper estimates the price and income elasticity of industrial and residential electricity demand in Turkey for 1960-2008 period. Time varying parameters model based on Kalman filter is employed. The results show that the income and price elasticities of industrial and residential electricity demand are lower than unity. The income elasticity of demand has a positive sign and it is statistically significant which is 0.979 and 0.955 for industrial and residential electricity demand, respectively. Thus, an increase in per capita electricity consumption is less than increase in per capita income. Moreover, the estimates of price elasticity are very inelastic for both residential and industrial electricity demand. The price elasticity of industrial electricity demand is-0.014 and price elasticity of residential electricity demand is-0.0223. Therefore, the price increase will not discourage residential and industrial electricity demand and consumers will show little response to electricity price variations because electricity is a necessary good. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Ozturk I.,Cag University | Bilgili F.,Erciyes University
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the long run dynamics of economic growth and biomass consumption nexus by applying dynamic panel analyses for 51 Sub-Sahara African countries for 1980-2009 period. The results show that economic growth is affected by biomass consumption, openness and population significantly and positively in African countries. GDP elasticity with respect to biomass consumption is close to unity and the elasticities of GDP in terms of openness are found statistically significant (between 0.259 and 0.348). According to homogeneous variance structure, one percent increase in variables of biomass, openness and population will lead GDP to increase by 1.818%, 0.269% and 0.676%, respectively. However, according to estimations from heterogeneous variance structure indicate that one percent increase in biomass, openness and population variables will cause GDP to increase by 0.820%, 0.259% and 0.811%, respectively. In conclusion, this paper finds significant effect of biomass consumption on GDP in 51 Africa countries. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Ozturk I.,Cag University | Acaravci A.,Mustafa Kemal University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

This paper examines the long run and causal relationship issues between economic growth, carbon emissions, energy consumption and employment ratio in Turkey by using autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach of cointegration. Empirical results for Turkey over the period 1968-2005 suggest an evidence of a long-run relationship between the variables at 5% significance level in Turkey. The estimated income elasticity of carbon emissions per capita is -0.606 and the income elasticity of energy consumption per capita is 1.375. Results for the existence and direction of Granger causality show that neither carbon emissions per capita nor energy consumption per capita cause real GDP per capita, but employment ratio causes real GDP per capita in the short run. In addition, EKC hypothesis at causal framework by using a linear logarithmic model is not valid in Turkish case. The overall results indicates that energy conservation policies, such as rationing energy consumption and controlling carbon dioxide emissions, are likely to have no adverse effect on the real output growth of Turkey. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Acaravci A.,Mustafa Kemal University | Ozturk I.,Cag University
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

This paper investigates the long-run relationship and causality issues between electricity consumption and economic growth in 15 Transition countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Ukraine) by using the Pedroni panel cointegration method for the 1990-2006 period. Results suggest that the Pedroni panel cointegration tests do not confirm a long-term equilibrium relationship between electricity consumption per capita and real GDP per capita. Moreover, since no cointegration was found, error-correction mechanisms plus causality tests cannot be run for further steps in the long-term to investigate the causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. Overall, it can be said that the electricity consumption related policies have no effect or relation on the level of real output in the long run for these countries. As a conclusion, the literature has conflicting results and there is no consensus either on the existence or the direction of causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. Thus, the findings of this study have important policy implications and it shows that this issue still deserves further attention in future research. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between energy and economic growth in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania from 1980 to 2006 by employing energy use per capita, electric power consumption per capita and real GDP per capita variables. To examine this linkage, we use the two-step procedure from the Engle and Granger model: In first step, we explore the long-run relationships between the variables by using recently developed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Secondly, we employ a dynamic vector error correction (VEC) model to test causal relationships between variables. The bounds test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between energy use per capita and real GDP per capita and evidence of two-way (bidirectional) strong Granger causality between these variables only in Hungary. On the other hand, the ARDL bounds test results show that there is no a unique long-term or equilibrium relationship between energy consumption variables and real GDP per capita in Albania, Bulgaria and Romania. In other words, no cointegration exists between these variables in these three countries. The econometric analysis suggests that any causal relationships within dynamic error correction model for Albania, Bulgaria and Romania cannot be estimated. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Acaravci A.,Mustafa Kemal University | Ozturk I.,Cag University
Energy | Year: 2010

This study examines the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth by using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration for nineteen European countries. The bounds F-test for cointegration test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between carbon emissions per capita, energy consumption per capita, real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the square of per capita real GDP only for Denmark, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Portugal and Switzerland. The cumulative sum and cumulative sum of squares tests also show that the estimated parameters are stable for the sample period.We found a positive long-run elasticity estimate of emissions with respect to energy consumption at 1% significant level in Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy and Portugal. Positive long-run elasticity estimates of carbon emissions with respect to real GDP and the negative long-run elasticity estimates of carbon emissions with respect to the square of per capita real GDP at 1% significance level in Denmark and 5% significant level in Italy are also found. These results support that the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Denmark and Italy. This study also explores causal relationship between the variables by using error-correction based Granger causality models. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ozturk I.,Cag University | Acaravci A.,Mustafa Kemal University
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the short-run and long-run causality issues between electricity consumption and economic growth in the selected 11 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration and vector error-correction models. It employs annual data covering the period from 1971 to 2006. The unit root tests results indicate that some of the variables for Algeria, Jordan, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates do not satisfy the underlying assumptions of the ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration methodology before proceeding to the estimation stage. Thus, we drop these countries from the ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration and causality analysis. The cointegration test results show that there is no cointegration between the electricity consumption and the economic growth in three of the seven countries (Iran, Morocco and Syria). Thus, causal relationship cannot be estimated for these countries. However, the cointegration and causal relationship is found in four countries (Egypt, Israel, Oman and Saudi Arabia). The overall results indicate that there is no relationship between the electricity consumption and the economic growth in most of the MENA countries. Further evidence indicates that policies for energy conservation can have a little or no impact on economic growth in most of the MENA countries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ozturk I.,Cag University | Acaravci A.,Mustafa Kemal University
Energy Economics | Year: 2013

The aim of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between financial development, trade, economic growth, energy consumption and carbon emissions in Turkey for the 1960-2007 period. The bounds F-test for cointegration test yields evidence of a long-run relationship between per capita carbon emissions, per capita energy consumption, per capita real income, the square of per capita real income, openness and financial development. The results show that an increase in foreign trade to GDP ratio results an increase in per capita carbon emissions and financial development variable has no significant effect on per capita carbon emissions in the long- run. These results also support the validity of EKC hypothesis in the Turkish economy. It means that the level of CO2 emissions initially increases with income, until it reaches its stabilization point, then it declines in Turkey. In addition, the paper explores causal relationship between the variables by using error-correction based Granger causality models. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ozturk I.,Cag University
Energy Policy | Year: 2010

This paper provides a survey of the recent progress in the literature of energy consumption-economic growth and electricity consumption-economic growth causality nexus. The survey highlights that most empirical studies focus on either testing the role of energy (electricity) in stimulating economic growth or examining the direction of causality between these two variables. Although the positive role of energy on growth has become a stylized fact, there are some methodological reservations about the results from these empirical studies. A general observation from these studies is that the literature produced conflicting results and there is no consensus neither on the existence nor on the direction of causality between energy consumption (electricity consumption) and economic growth. As a policy implication, to avoid from conflicting and unreliable results, the authors may use the autoregressive distributed lags bounds test, two-regime threshold co-integration models, panel data approach and multivariate models including new variables (such as: real gross fixed capital formation, labor force, carbon dioxide emissions, population, exchange rates, interest rates, etc.). Thus, the authors should focus more on the new approaches and perspectives rather than by employing usual methods based on a set of common variables for different countries and different intervals of time. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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